Obeah Man and African Culture in Entertainment

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A common theme of this blog is the reality that entertainment is often used as a tool against African people, through which history can either be distorted or through which African are reduced to simplistic stereotypes and caricatures. Comic books are no different. One case in particular that I believe is really ridiculous is a villain in the Batman comics that is called Obeah Man.

From the start we see the usual vilification of African religious traditions and culture in the form of a bad guy named Obeah Man. Obeah, which is widely practiced throughout the Caribbean, is considered a taboo and often associated with evil. The calypsonian Shadow did a song entitled “Obeah,” which was a sort of parody of the fact that some associate Obeah with “dealing with Satan.” Obeah was so vilified that it was illegal in many Caribbean territories.

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What makes the character of Obeah Man even more ridiculous is that he is a Haitian voodoo witchdoctor. The writers of this character are not only attempting to vilify African cultural practices (obeah and voodoo), but they don’t even know the difference between the two.
Comic books (and popular media in general) are filled with examples of the vilification of African culture, but even by those standards this is pretty bad—and downright ridiculous to anyone that knows anything about obeah and voodoo. It is also things like this which really reinforce the fact that as African people we have to start controlling our own narratives. It’s not enough to point out the media stereotypes and misrepresentations of African people and our culture, but we have to provide alternatives.
As I did the last time I did a blog on comic books, I will end this by promoting Brotherman because he is one example of a black superhero that was not only written by black people, but a comic that was owned and produced by black people (our alternative to white owned DC and Marvel)


Original author: D Omowale
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Education and Self-Esteem in the Black Child 60 Years Later - Dwayne Wong

Noticing that black children did not have a kindergarten, Ida B. Wells proposed that one should be established. Her idea was met with backlash from black parents who insisted that their children must only be taught in white schools. Wells was obviously surprised that some parents preferred “to let our children be neglected and do without kindergarten service than to supply the needs of their own.” This story is really important in understanding how African people in the United States approach education. As a community we have consistently failed to educate our own children, and have continued to make it the reasonability of others to provide that education. We have now reached 60 years since the Brown v. Board of Education decision which ruled that segregated schools were unconstitutional, yet this anniversary is a somber one as we are reminded how far we still have to go to provide equal education for African children. 

 

 

One of the arguments used against segregated schools in the Brown v. Board of Education was Kenneth Clark’s doll test which demonstrated the considerably low self-esteem of black children. What Dr. Clark found was that most of the black children tested had a considerable preference for white dolls. The same doll test was done in 2006 by Kiri Davis and the results were essentially the same. This was not an American phenomenon either, as the same doll test was done in Trinidad and it was discovered that the black children in Trinidad demonstrated an even greater preference for the white doll. This prompted the secretary general of Trinidad and Tobago teachers union to state: “Even in Trinidad, where 85 percent of the people are black and we have a black government, we have not recovered from 400 years in which blacks knew the white man as the boss.”

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African Kings and Queens in the New World

When discussing the slave trade we often use language that really fails to capture the reality of the situation. For example, take the word “slave.” We so often passively speak of slaves coming to the New World that we forget these were men and women that had professions before they were enslaved. As Walter Rodney said, “Strictly speaking, the African only became a slave when he reached a society where he worked as a slave. Before that, he was first a free man and then a captive.”

Before being a slave, Africans held various occupations. There was the example of Omar ibn Said, who was a scholar in Futa Toro before he was captured. In the video below, Edward Robinson describes his ancestor who was a sculptor in Nigeria beginning at 3:40:
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There were also a number or members of royalty in Africa that were brought to the New World to be enslaved. Many of us in the Diaspora often speak of being descendants of kings and queens, and in this blog I will show some of the kings and queens that we came from. The most well-documented and famous example of African royalty coming to America was the story of  Abdul Rahman Ibrahima Sori, who was an African prince, military commander, and scholar from Futa Jallon. His story is told in the book Prince Among Slaves.
In the Kongo Kingdom, Afonso is remembered as being one of the first African monarchs to attempt to put an end to the slave trade. Afonso was concerned about the fact that the Portuguese enslavers were kidnapping his people so frequently that the kingdom was becoming depopulated. The Portuguese paid no attention to Afonso’s requests to end Kongo’s involvement in the slave trade and some slave traders even tried to assassinate him. Eventually Afonso lost some of his own nephews and grandchildren to the slave trade. They were enslaved in Brazil. There is also the case of a Ghanaian chief named Ndorkutsu, whose grandfather and grandson were tricked into boarding a slave ship and the ship subsequently brought them to Cuba. Nanny, the famous maroon leader in Jamaica, came from a royal family in Ghana. 
Two of the most important personalities in the history of the struggle against slavery, Toussaint L’Ouverture and Martin Delany, were both grandsons of African royalty. Delany was the grandson of a Mandingo prince and Toussaint’s great-grandfather was an African king in the kingdom of Ardra. The most interesting case of African royalty in the Diaspora is the case of King Julio Pinedo of Bolivia. Pinedo has the distinction of being the only African monarch in the Americas.
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Julio Pinedo

As a child Pinedo noticed that people would refer to his grandfather as a king. It was after his grandfather died that Pinedo was shown a book about a guy named Bonifaz, who was a Senegalese king that was sold into slavery. Pinedo learned that he was a direct descendant of Bonifaz and he was crowned as the king of Africans in Bolivia.

What we have to keep in mind as African people is that we did not come over as slaves. Before being enslaved we came as kings, queens, artists, lawyers, scholars, famers, and other professions. 

Original author: D Omowale
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Selma: Obama’s Speech 50 Years After

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In 1965, a group of demonstrators—which included Martin Luther King, John Lewis, and others—marched from Selma to Montgomery in an attempt to win voting rights for African Americans. During the first march an event that has come to be known as “Bloody Sunday” took place in which protesters were beaten. Amelia Boynton Robinson, who was one of the key figures of the march, was beaten unconscious. Fifty years after this event, it is very easy to see some of the apparent changes that have been made. The protestors did in fact win their struggle and African Americans gained equal voting rights. The election of Barrack Obama, perhaps more than any event within the fifty years after the Selma march, demonstrated the increase in political rights that African Americans gained. Yet, listening to President Obama speak on the 50th anniversary of the march, one is not completely reassured that African Americans really made progress.
Just the year before, the nation was rocked by the death of 18-year old Mike Brown at the hands of a police officer and the rioting that ensued when the officer that killed Brown was not even indicted for the shooting.  This incident came after the death of Eric Garner in New York, who was choked to death by the police, even as he screamed that he could not breathe. Shortly after that Jahmiel Cuffe was held down and had his head stomped by police officers. Keep in mind, that all three men were unarmed. Then after Mike Brown’s death, there was the death of 12-year old Tamir Rice. He was in the park playing with a toy gun, which police officers mistook for a real gun and they shot Rice. They then handcuffed Rice’s 14-year old sister. In the midst of these events, which all happened in a short space of time, there was also a prosecutor clearing all of the charges against the officers that shot and killed 8-year old Aiyana Jones after the officers broke into her home.
The week leading up to the 50th anniversary speech given by Obama, there was the death of a homeless man named “Africa.” Like all the other victims mentioned, he was unarmed, yet the police officers found it necessary to use violent force on him. An entourage of police officers fought Africa down to the ground and then shot him. Although Africa did not have a gun, one officer shouted “Drop the gun.” Also taking place in the same week as the 50th anniversary speech, was that the charges against 17-year old Enrique Del Rosario were dropped. He was charged with assaulting an officer, but the charges were dropped when video evidence showed that the officer was lying. The cops had brutally beaten the 17-yead old and then accused me of assaulting them. Finally, there were the protests about the shooting of unarmed 19-year old Tony Robinson, who was shot and killed the day before Obama gave his Selma speech. Malcolm X spoke of this very thing when he said: “They attack the victim and then the criminal who attacked the victim accuses the victim of attacking him. This is American justice.”
This was the background to Obama’s speech, yet, for the most part, Obama really did not address this. He briefly spoke about Ferguson, stating: “What happened in Ferguson may not be unique, but it’s no longer endemic, or sanctioned by law and custom; and before the Civil Rights Movement, it most surely was.” How can so many cases of police brutality towards African Americans happen at such frequency, yet police violence not be “endemic?” Moreover, the fact is that the law is often on the side of the officers that commit these brutalities.
In his speech Obama did warn against making the mistake of believing that racism has been banished, but I would also argue that the myth of believing in progress where there is none is just as dangerous. Obama spoke to this when he said: “If you think nothing’s changed in the past fifty years, ask somebody who lived through the Selma or Chicago or L.A. of the Fifties.” Certainly those elders that lived through the events of 1965 can attest to how things have changed and there can be doubt that things have changed, but are those changes proof of progress?

Obama mentioned Chicago, where he served as a Senator before being elected president. This is the same Chicago where a woman named Shirley Chamber had buried her fourth and final child.  All four of them had been killed due to gang violence, but again the violence in Chicago and other black communities was never mentioned by Obama. Despite the optimism that Obama spoke of in his speech, the reality of the situation for African Americans is that we are still in a state of oppression and misery. That is what really should have been addressed in that speech.

Other than the advancement of individuals such as Obama, in the 50 years since Selma it is difficult to point to any area where African Americans, as a whole, have advanced since the 1960s. In terms of ownership, we own less in 2015 than we did in the 1960s and our communities are in disarray. The speech demonstrates the disconnect between politicians such as President Obama or Congressman John Lewis that can speak of progress, while seemingly ignoring the frustrations of the African masses in the United States. 

Original author: D Omowale
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Africans vs. African Americans: A Historical View

"I have recently had the pleasure of reading your autobiography, and it occurred to me that if leading thinkers and workers of the African race had the opportunity of exchanging thoughts across the Atlantic, the present century would be likely to see the solution of the race problem."

 

-Ghanaian J.E. Casely Hayford writing to African American Booker T. Washington

 

 

 

I often see Africans in the Diaspora speaking about how Africans from the continent dislike them. I won’t deny that at least some Africans have these views and that over the past few years relationships between global African people has deteriorated in many ways, but when one looks at the historical relationship between the Diaspora and Africa we see that there always has been a connection between the Diaspora and the African continent that has influenced both sides. In this blog I will give a number of historical examples.

 

 

 

We can start with the expedition of American born Martin Delany and Jamaican born Robert Campbell. At the time Delany was an advocate for repatriating to Africa and he set out with Campbell to find land to settle on. Their journeys are told in Delany’s Official Report of the Niger Valley Exploring Party and Campbell’s A Pilgrimage to My Motherland. Both accounts attest to not only the warm treatment that both men received, but that they were ultimately able to achieve their goal. They signed a treaty with the king of Abeokuta allowing them to establish a colony in the unoccupied land of the kingdom. This plan did not work out for a number of reasons, including Delany returning to America and getting involved in the Civil War and the Reconstruction, but this event demonstrates that Africans were willing to allow Diaspora Africans to settle in their land.

 

 

 

Campbell’s account in particular mentions how he encountered a chief named Ogubonna. Ogubonna asked Campbell which part of Africa his grandmother came from, but Campbell could not say. Ogubonna responded by saying: “How can I tell but that you are of my own kindred, for many of my ancestors were taken and sold away.” And from that point on Campbell was treated like family by Ogubonna. Although Delany returned to America and got involved in politics, before he once again became an advocate of emigration back to Africa, Campbell permanently relocated to Lagos.

 

 

 

With all of the tensions that have existed between the American returnees and the natives in Liberia, it is often overlooked that the natives generally saw the American returnees as their long lost brothers returning home. The most prominent thinker in Liberian history was the West Indian born Edward Wilmot Blyden, who was a permanent resident of Liberia and advocated for Africans in the Diaspora to relocate to Liberia.

 

 

 

William Leo Hansberry was an American born African. Hansberry, like Carter G. Woodson, expressed a tireless dedication to researching and educating people on African history, despite the number of obstacles that were in his path. Among his students were not only African Americans, but also West Indians and Africans as well. One of his students was future Nigerian president Nnamdi Azikiwe. Years later, to show appreciation to his teacher, President Azikiwe would create a college the Hansberry Institute at the University of Nigeria.

 

 

 

Hansberry’s mentor W.E.B. Du Bois moved to Ghana at the end of his life where he was a welcomed guest of then president Kwame Nkrumah. Du Bois died in Ghana at the age of 95 and a memorial center was established in his honor. Nkrumah also maintained close ties with a number of Africans from the Diaspora. Under him the Trinidadian George Padmore served as an advisor. The Guyanese born T. Ras Makonnen was also a cabinet member for Nkrumah. Malcolm X visited Ghana during Nkrumah’s tenure and was greeted warmly. Newspapers stated that not since Du Bois moved to Ghana had a foreigner been so well-received in Ghana as Malcolm was.

 

 

 

Malcolm’s entire time in Africa was one of widespread acceptance by the African people. He met with Nkrumah and a number of other African leaders. In Nigerian he was given the title Omowale (meaning “the son who returns home”). In Senegal people lined up to meet Malcolm and some were asking for autographs. Malcolm recalled that Africans embraced him genuinely than even African American audiences did.

Martin Luther King had visited Ghana in 1957 where he met with Nkrumah. Being in Ghana and witnessing how the nation had just recently won its independence was an emotional experience for King, who explained: “Before I knew it, I started weeping. I was crying for joy.” And while on the subject of Ghana, it was worth pointing out that American born Garveyite Audley Moore was officially crowned as Queen Mother Moore by the Asante king in Ghana.

 

 

 

The Trinidadian born Kwame Ture is yet another African who moved to Africa. He moved to Guinea where he worked alongside Kwame Nkrumah and Guinean president Sekou Touré—in fact he took the name Kwame Ture in honor of both men. President Thomas Sankara of Burkina Faso also demonstrated an interest in the African Diaspora. Sankara visited Harlem and described Harlem as his White House. He was also impressed with the cultural activities of Harlem. After watching a ballet in Harlem Sankara explained that he felt like he was back in Africa again.

 

 

 

Walter Rodney spent some time teaching in Tanzania, where he wrote his famous book How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Rodney, who was born in Guyana, became popular with the students in Tanzania. Rodney was also personal friends with Robert Mugabe and Mugabe had even requested that Rodney write a book on Zimbabwe’s history.

 

 

 

In 1966, the Haitian writer Jean Price-Mars was invited as an honored guest by President Leopold Senghor for the first World Festival of Negro Arts in Senegal. Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie had set aside 500 acres of land in Ethiopia for Africans in the Diaspora to settle on. This was done to show appreciation for the support he received from the African Diaspora during the war with Mussolini.
 

 

 

 

A number of Diaspora musicians have also found an audience in Africa. Artists such as Bob Marley, Peter Tosh, and Tupac Shakur are well-known across the African continent. Hip-hop and reggae are also extremely popular genres in the African continent. When Louis Armstrong visited Africa he was treated as a huge star. Michael Jackson, who made frequent trips to Africa, was crowned as a local chief. Likewise, the Barbadian singer Mighty Gabby was also made a local chief and like Malcolm he was given the name Omowale.

 

 

 

Finally, we cannot forget the influence that Marcus Garvey had on Africa. Although he never stepped foot on the continent (the European colonists had banned him from doing so), Garvey’s legacy was immense. Perhaps nothing demonstrates this more so than the flags of various African nations. Garvey’s United Negro Improvement Association came up with the red, black, and green flag to represent the African race. This flag was adopted by Malawi, Kenya, and the former Biafra Republic. The flag of Burkina Faso is red and green, but Thomas Sankara left out the black because felt that since they were already in Africa adding black to the flag was unnecessary. Rather than red, black, and green, Ghana’s flag has red, yellow, and green, but the black star in the center of the flag was meant as a tribute to Garvey’s Black Star Line.

 

 

 

The UNIA Flag

 

The flag of Ghana

 

The flag of Burkina Faso

 

As African people we need to know this history because it demonstrates the interconnected nature of our global struggle and how we have drawn inspiration from each other. We run into a lot of issues as a people when we don’t know our history. We find ourselves holding views and opinions that do not reflect certain historical realties. Like I said, there are definitely some tensions between African at home and abroad, but this does not overshadow the fact that some of the most prominent figures on the African continent in recent history were either born in the Diaspora or they were influenced by people in the Diaspora.
 
I conclude with this video of African American Glen Fisher receiving his Tikar name during his visit to Cameroon.
 
 
 
 
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Quotes on Shadism and Mixed Race Identity Confusion

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The following is a collection of quotes related to the issue of shadism and racial identity of mixed race black people:
“Light or dark complexion, its one place we all from.”
“John Butler’s assimilated black displayed a confident demeanor as he attempted to pass himself off as a white man. The owner claimed that this fair-skinned slave would present himself as free. Describing his runaway as a ‘yellowish’ mulatto, the owner also noted that the fugitive would try ‘passing as a white man.’ Thomas Ledwith claimed that his slave Ned or Edward Dixon, a ‘bright quadroon,’ would attempt to ‘pass for a white man’ because of his straight hair.”
-Larry Eugene Rivers discussing how slaves would try to pass for white to obtain their freedom
“‘Cause if your ‘plexion high, high, high
 If your complexion low, low
 And if your ‘plexion in between, you're an African”
“Negro America is set up the same as white America. The lighter skinned a negro, the more significant a role he can play. (It has always been the one who looked white who made it in negro America. This was the man with the position, the influence, this was the man who usually got the white man's best job.) In between light negro America and Black negro America (in terms of color), there is a special category of people, who are assigned the name of red niggers. These are the people who are light enough to go into light negro America, but do not have Caucasian characteristics. They don't have straight hair or white features. So they can go either way, depending on them. They can operate in Black negro America or at the outer fringes of light negro America. Race prejudice in America becomes color prejudice in negro America. That which is cultural prejudice by whites against Blacks becomes class prejudice in negro America. To distinguish themselves, negroes assign class distinctions. Here we find the instituting and substituting of parallel values. Negroes assume that what is good for white America is good for negro America.”

“First of all, I was never white. But you will say this to those that always prefer to see in me only a thin nose, a white father, a parda (brown) mother and a very light-skinned sister with straight hair. They spent my whole life trying to convince me that my parda skin, of a light tone, would make me a menina branca (white girl), but I never accepted this.”

-Regiany

“Like the lighter children might be considered as white—and the darker may be considered as black you know, so—it's a really different way of perceiving it—and for us of the black movement in Brazil—we think that this—the way how this issue of race works in Brazil—it's a kind of a weapon against us—because it divides the black population.”
“Blacks and Yellows, whom the refined duplicity of Europeans has for a long time endeavored to divide; you, who are now consolidated, and make but one family; without doubt it was necessary that our perfect reconciliation should be sealed with the blood of your butchers.”
“Even I don’t know how to define myself. I consider myself black, mulatto. White, no”
“I had to discover that I was black. And I discovered that I was black in America, when I first went to New York. Most Dominicans don’t discover that they are black until they go to New York. And all of a sudden, I felt that my roots were in Africa, not in Spain—although, even today, everybody here says that the motherland is in Spain.”

“On this occasion, I was warned to keep extremely quiet, because two guests had been invited. One was the town constable, and the other was a free colored man, who tried to pass himself off for white, and who was always ready to do any mean work for the sake of currying favor with white people.”

-Harriet Jacobs

“if we are black, brown, yellow or near white, the responsibility for that accident is not ours, but the time has now come for us to get together and make ourselves a strong and healthy race.”
-Marcus Garvey

"Skin color does not interfere with your race. I have fair skin, but my maternal and paternal grandparents are black, so I say that I’m black. My family came from the Northeast, my light eyes maybe a legacy of the Dutch heritage."

-Vanessa Jesus Souza

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Original author: D Omowale
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The Root of Tribalism in Africa

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“Ethnic differences exist; of course they exist on the African continent. They are not necessarily political differences, however. They don’t necessarily cause people to kill each other. They become so-called ‘tribalism’ when they are politicized in a particular framework. And in post-independence Africa they have been politicized largely by sections of the so-called African elite.”

The European colonialists used the ethnic differences between Africans to their advantage through divide and conquer tactics that either created or reinforced ethnic differences. Ethic differences did exist, but they were not as rigidly defined as Europeans would later define the concept of the tribe. For example, the Asante and Fante of Ghana would be, by European definitions of tribes, considered different tribes and thus any conflict between them would be considered tribalism. Joseph Casely Hayford, himself a Fante, described a different relationship between the two. He explained that the Asante and Fante were “by language, traditions, customs, and laws…practically one people.” Although the two groups were at odds with each other and often fought—which the British colonialists took full advantage of—they were essentially the same people. Hayford notes that prior to the British getting involved, the wars between the Asante and Fante were mainly fought over control over trade routes. They were not fighting each other simply because they hated each other for “tribal” reasons.

Walter Rodney explains a similar thing between the Hausas and Ibos in Nigeria. They fought each other over control of trade, political expansion, and for religious differences, but at no point in the pre-colonial history of the two do we find Hausas massacring Ibos like what happened in the events leading up to the Biafra War.
There are other facts to look at, such as the fact that many African Empires were made up of multiple ethnic groups, such as the Mali and Songhai Empires. Had tribal identities been so rigid such empires would not have existed. And although many African states expanded their territory and influence through warfare, there are also many examples of different groups willing incorporating themselves into larger kingdoms or empires. Shaka, for example, was did not only wage war on nearby groups; some of them willingly joined with the Zulus. Likewise, in Ethiopia, many groups opted to peacefully join Menelik’s empire rather than fighting against him. In Destruction of Black Civilization Chancellor Williams explains that the Lunda Empire’s expansion was not one based on warring against other people. The Lunda Empire would use oral history to demonstrate to other independent states that they came from a common ancestry. The Lunda only waged war on those that rejected tp willing unite with the Lunda Empire. The empire of  Kanem-Borno was born as a fusion of the Kanembu and Borno people. It was also a common practice in many African societies that those who were conquered and forced into servitude would eventually be incorporated into the society. In Dahomey, for example, captives that worked as domestic slaves were absorbed into the population as freemen and their children were considered citizens of Dahomey.
In Rwanda the conflicts were caused between the Tutsi and Hutu by Belgian divide and rule tactics. To help reinforce the differences the Belgians also introduced ID cards for Tutsis and Hutus. These same ID cards would be used to indentify Tutsis from Hutus during the 1994 massacre. Uganda, Sudan, and Djibouti are other examples of African nations that have suffered internal conflicts as a direct result of colonial divide and rule policies. In South Africa there was the Bantu Education Act which promoted tribal differences

Ethnic differences did exist in Africa, but rarely did it lead to the type of violence and massacres that we’ve seen in the post-colonial. Much of the problems have tribalism that we have seen in post-colonial Africa has much of its roots in colonial divide and rule policies, as well as the politicization of tribal identities. African politicians have used these ethnic differences much in the same way Europeans have to further divide and exploit their own people. This is a fact that George Ayittey points out when he asks: “Ever noticed that those African leaders who preach national unity and denounce tribalism are the same ones who surround themselves with members of their own tribes?” The key to overcoming the problem of tribalism in Africa is in recognizing how ethnic identities have become rigidly defined political identities that divide African people and hinder the abilities to create a united mass movement.
Original author: D Omowale
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Dimensions of 2Pac: The Tragic Self-Destruction

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“One of the most prevailing mentacidal myths in the Black community is that street sense is positive. What is really being inferred is that Whites do not control the streets in the Black community nor the behavior of Blacks on those streets. This is untrue. Whites have more control, or at least as much control, over brothers and sisters in the streets than over those in universities. Street sense generally prepares Blacks to deal with one another in very destructive ways and then the Whites wipe-out the winner. The population of prisons, drug programs, and funeral homes verify this reality.”

-Bobby E. Wright

Environment plays an important factor in ones development. I explained this a bit when I wrote about Michael Jackson and how, despite all the pride that he had in his black identity and his African roots, the scars that his childhood left on him made it difficult for him to truly love and embrace himself. We see a similar thing with Tupac. Tupac grew up in poverty. His mother was addicted to crack, he had no father figure in his life, and at one point he was homeless and living on the streets. Despite this, Tupac saw himself as “the rose that grew from concrete.” Tupac wrote:

we wouldn’t ask why a rose that grew from the concrete for having damaged petals, in turn, we would all celebrate its tenacity, we would all love its will to reach the sun, well, we are the roses, this is the concrete and these are my damaged petals, don’t ask me why, thank god, and ask me how.

Tupac saw himself as being that rose in that he was able to achieve success, despite the harsh environment that he grew out of. The tragic story of Tupac was that he had potential to achieve much, not only as an entertainer, but as a leader. The video below demonstrates the type of insight and intelligence Tupac had at a very young age:



People often mention Tupac’s youth and what he achieved at such a young age when discussing his potential. Quincy Jones does that here when he explained:
If Malcolm X died at 25 he would have been a street hustler, named Detroit Red. If Martin Luther King died at 25 he would’ve been known as a local Baptist preacher. And if I had died at 25 I would’ve been known as a struggling musician. Only a sliver of my life’s potential.
I’ve actually seen a number of people compare Tupac at 25 to where Martin Luther King and Malcolm X were at when they were at that age. Obviously, Tupac achieved more fame at that point, but I think the overlooked aspect is the direction that the three men’s lives were on. At 25, King’s role as a Baptist preacher helped to prepare him later for his role as a civil rights leader. At 25, Malcolm was educating himself in prison and by the time Malcolm was 27 he was one of the leading ministers within the Nation of Islam. At the age of 25 Malcolm and Martin’s lives were heading towards the path of becoming great leaders. Tupac, for all of his potential, was going down the path of self-destruction and he did not have the guidance to stop himself.
I also want to point out that Tupac’ success at a young age may have also worked to his disadvantage. King and Malcolm were able to grow into their roles as leaders over time, but Tupac became a musical superstar before he was fully matured and even able to take on the mantle of a leader within the black community. For this reason he made a number of mistakes and blunders along the way. Tupac expressed the ability to recognize his mistakes and to grow from them, but he was never able to rise above the environment he came from and that he was surrounded by. To make one final point about Tupac’s age, we have to keep in mind that Nas was about 20 years old when he released Illmatic, which is still considered one of the greatest albums in hip-hop history. Throughout his career Nas has demonstrated conscious and revolutionary themes in some of his songs, but he never grew into the caliber of leader that Malcolm and King were, so Tupac achieving such success at a young age was not a guarantee that he would have grown to become a powerful leader in the community. I would make the argument that in some ways Tupac’s own political consciousness was regressing during the latter months of his short life and that he began straying away from his potential.
Much of this regression was related to Tupac’s affiliation with Death Row Records and his getting caught up in the East Coast-West Coast rivalry that began while he was in prison. Tupac was in a difficult situation. He was in prison for sexual assault charges and facing as much as four and a half years in prison. The only ones putting out bail money for Tupac was Death Row. Tupac recognized that not only would signing with Death Row get him out of jail, but it would give him the chance to work alongside some of the most successful people in the industry.  People that were close to Tupac were worried about the young rapper’s future considering the reputation that Death Row Records (and Suge Knight in particular) had, but Tupac had few alternatives, so he signed with Death Row and shortly after being released from prison Tupac released what was, from a sales standpoint, the most successful album of his career.
The rivalry between East coast and West Coast rappers dominated much of Tupac’s thinking throughout the final months of his life, so much so that there was a noticeable regression in Tupac’s own political consciousness. In 1991 Tupac was criticizing the policies and racism of the American government. If he were to make a statement like “overthrow the government” during this time period he would probably be talking about the actual government—much like Public Enemy in their “Rebel Without a Pause.” In this interview from 1996, Tupac was talking about Bad Boy Records and Nas as “the government” and urging East Coast rap fans to overthrow that government:



That’s political regression. Tupac went from addressing serious issues like police brutality to getting involved in insignificant rap beefs that really did not impact the lives of most black people. Tupac was mistaken in referring to Bad Boys as the government because within the black community they held no power, beyond the fact that Puffy, Biggie, and others enriched themselves from selling albums, the same way that Death Row Records did. Tupac closes the interview by saying Death Row Records would bring a new government that would feed every person in New York, but Death Row did not even achieve that in the West Coast. Tupac here was blurring the lines between genuine nation building and community building activism with selling albums. He seemed to be equating a few talented rappers selling albums with real black empowerment. Given the politically conscious and revolutionary ideas that Tupac expressed earlier in his career, it is disappointing to see him talking about his beef with New York rappers as if it represented some sort of genuine revolutionary struggle.

We also see a regression in Tupac’s handling of certain big issues in the community. One of the things that Tupac recognized was the negative influence of marijuana on the thinking of black people. Although Tupac smoked a lot of weed, in some of his songs he was also cautious about the effects that being too caught in mind altering substances could have on a community. In “Better Dayz” and “Unconditional Love” Tupac cautions the community to cut down back on the amount of weed that is used.  In “Revolution” Tupac raps: “Think of the damage we can do, if we wasn’t high.”  In “Letter To the President” Tupac raps that America made black people living in the ghetto get high because they felt that it would be easier to train them  in that state of mind. And in “Hold On, Be Strong,” Tupac raps: “The marijuana had my mind gone, it wasn’t healthy.” Tupac was so deep into marijuana that for the first couple of days in prison Tupac found that he hardly knew himself:

Well, the first two days in prison, I had to go through what life is like when you’ve been smoking weed for as long as I have and then you stop. Emotionally, it was like I didn’t know myself. I was sitting in a room, like there was two people in the room, evil and good. That was the hardest part. After that, the weed was out of me.

Karen Lee, who was Tupac’s publicist, explained that during his stay in prison: “There was a clarity about him because he wasnt getting high, he wasn’t smoking.” Tupac was also reflective about his life when he was in prison. He was explained: “The addict in Tupac is dead. The excuse maker in Tupac is dead.” Tupac was really looking to make a positive change in his life, but even in this regard we see a clear regression when he joined Death Row.

One of the songs that Tupac recorded when he was released from jail was “Rather Be Ya Nigga,” in which Tupac was rapping about getting drunk and smoking weed all day. In fact, the entire All Eyez on Me album hardly reflects the reflective attitude that Tupac had when he was in prison. In “Picture me Rollin’” Tupac raps about the challenges he faces in his quest to acquire riches. This type of materialism and pursuit of money is a common theme found throughout Tupac’s later songs. For example, in “All Eyez on Me” Tupac raps “cause all I want is cash and things, a five-double-oh Benz, flaunting flashy rings.” In “Bomb First” Tupac makes it clear that he wants “money, hoes, sex, and weed.” In “2 of Amerikaz Most Wanted” Tuapc claims that his intention is to get richer and in “Let’s Fight” Tupac boasts: “I can make a million and still not get enough of spending.”  All of this is also keeping in mind that when Tupac was with Death Row he would frequently flaunt his money, which was a noticeable change in personality for an artist that had previously been very conscious about poverty and wealth inequality in American society:

This video also points to the fact that Tupac’s mentality in prison was different from his mentality when he was with Death Row.

Tupac had always enjoyed his success as a rapper in the past, but when he was with Death Row it became as if the money he was making was defining his success. It also became the standard by which he would judge himself against other rappers. For example, in “Hit ‘Em Up” Tupac boasted how Biggie Smalls and other New York rappers were “living bummy” and how they had copied Tupac’s style by wearing brand-name clothing like Versace. Tupac was also boasting about how Death Row was outselling Bad Boy Records. It was as if everything Tupac did during his tenure at Death Row was geared towards selling albums and making money, more so that providing conscious music.
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On the surface Tupac seemed to have achieved everything he wanted by joining Death Row. He was selling more records than ever and making money. Beneath the money, the women, and the fame, however, Tupac was not truly happy. Shock G explained that Tupac always had to be drunk or high or doing something to take his mind off of the pain he was in. In song such as “Thugz Mansion” and “Lord Knows” Tupac openly spoke about his suicidal thoughts. In “Lord Knows,” especially, Tupac spoke about how being high was the only thing that prevented him from blowing his brains out. Like so many black people often do, Tupac was trying to mask some of his own emotional pains with money, sex, weed, and liquor, but in the end this tactic never works. 

The last video recording of Tupac before he was fatally shot was of him and his entourage jumping a gangster named Orlando Anderson. This beating was apparently retaliation for Anderson robbing a member of Death Row’s entourage. Tupac’s killers were never found and the circumstances around his death has been so mysterious that it has given rise to a number of theories.

Some have argued that Tupac was killed by the police or by the FBI because he was a threat. Tupac was talking about forming a political party for black people and other oppressed ethnic groups, and this may have made him a threat to the system. He certainly caught the attention of politicians earlier in his career when he was rapping about fighting back against corrupt police officers. But the thing to keep in mind is that the targets for COINTELPRO were engaged in more revolutionary actions than Tupac was at the time of his death. You would have never caught Malcolm X, Martin Luther King, Elijah Muhammad, Stokely Carmichael, Bobby Seale, Assata Shakur, or others in a casino beating down a gang member.  In fact, had Tupac not been killed he would have found himself right back in prison for violating his probation. Keep in mind that Suge Knight was jailed for violating his probation for his role in the altercation with Anderson and Knight was not released until 2001. An extended prison sentence would have definitely hampered Tupac’s political aspirations for the elections in 2000.

Many of the Black Panthers and other revolutionaries from the 1970s were imprisoned for crimes that they did not commit, but most of them did not put themselves in situations where they could easily be arrested for petty offenses. Queen Mother Moore, a Pan-African activist who was a member of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, said: “Get arrested fighting for your rights. Don’t let them catch you on these insignificant things.” Much of Tupac’s legal troubles were for insignificant things that had little to do with fighting for social justice. One instance included when he assaulted the Hugh Brothers. Tupac boasted about doing this in a public interview and that same clip was used as evidence against Tupac in court. Tupac ended up serving 15 days in jail for this.



As a leader you have to put yourself in positions to succeed, and Tupac struggled with that throughout his life. Tupac knew he was on a path for self-destruction, and it was almost as if he did not want to stop himself. In “Blasphemy” Tupac admitted “this thug life will be the death of me.” What we see with Tupac was a sort of self-fulfilling prophecy. He never believed that he would make it out of his 20s—this is a fact mentioned by just about everyone that was close with Tupac. For this reason, Tupac led the type of fast pace and often reckless lifestyle that contributed to his death. He had to of known the situation that he was getting himself into when he involved himself in the rivalry between East Coast and West Coast rappers, and then personalizing the rivalry with death threats against the other rappers and bragging about having sex with Biggie’s wife. He had to of known the consequences for jumping a gang member, but he still did these things anyway.
All of this was the tragedy that was Tupac because he was a genuinely intelligent and insightful person. He had a lot of compassion and a genuine love for his people. He also had a genuine desire to create a positive change in the world. The situation that Tupac was born into and the type of environment that he was surrounded by his entire life really hindered his potential, and caused him to make mistakes that prevented him from achieving his goals. The other unfortunate part about Tupac’s fate was that he never had proper guidance. Malcolm X was able to transform his life because of the Nation of Islam, but Tupac never really had that positive force in his life to truly transform his consciousness. For this reason Tupac never really found his identity and was constantly struggling with himself. He admitted this much when he said:  “I’m at war with my own heart sometimes.”
Most tragically, like so many young black men, Tupac internalized and tried to rationalize stereotypes rather than breaking them. In a previous blog I spoke to the importance of Africans in the United States recognizing their identity and roots. Tupac never did this; he never really embraced being an African—which is sad considering that he had once spoken about the importance of having an “African brain” and he was a member of the New Afrikan Panthers. Tupac most often referred to himself as a nigga. Without getting into the history of that word, I will say that using that term is negative in the sense that it does not carry with it any type of history, culture, or legacy. Tupac attempted to put a positive twist on it by saying it stood for “never ignorant getting goals accomplished,” but at the same time Tupac also explained that he smoked weed and got drunk because that’s what niggas do. Tupac’s statement about the behavior of niggas was used by Lil Wayne as an intro to this song:

The thing that Tupac forgot to mention was that niggas often destroy themselves and each other because that’s what they’ve been conditioned to do. Tupac’s life can be viewed as an inspiring and uplifting one, but the picture is incomplete if we neglect that Tupac’s life is also a cautionary tale about the importance of black people avoiding self-destructive and self-defeating behaviors. What makes Tupac so interesting is that he recognized that a lot of what he was doing was wrong or that it would lead to his own death at an early age, but he couldn’t stop himself. Much of this was probably because it was more rewarding to behave the way that Tupac was than to fall into obscurity like so many other conscious rappers did in the 1990s as the popularity of socially conscious hip-hop declined. It paid more to rap about thug life than it did to rap about revolution, so Tupac eventually became more about thug life and less about revolution. The people that Tupac surrounded himself with also helped to reinforce some of Tupac’s worst behaviors.
I will leave the final message of this blog to Tupac:
The message is young black males could do anything if you just give us a shot, stop trying to beat us down. And to my homeboys, we need to be in control of ourselves. I’m not saying I’ll change the world, but I guarantee I’ll spark the brain that will change the world.
Original author: D Omowale
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Dimensions of 2Pac: Tupac and Women

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Tupac was known as an artist that could at times be very contradictory. One of the aspects where Tupac’s complexity is reflected the most is in his treatment of women in his music. Tupac complex and at times conflicting views on women are also related to the larger issue of the disruption in the relationship between black men and black women. I pointed out in a previous blog that women held substantial power in African societies. In my ebook The Historical Struggles of AfricanWomen I go into more details about the important roles that women held in African society and how slavery/colonialism altered that role and stripped women of their power, and often reduced women to sex objects for their slave masters. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl by Harriet Ann Jacobs is one of the best accounts of the psychical and psychological aspects of the sexual abuse that African women faced on the slave plantations. The depiction of women in hip-hop often reflects this lack of power. Women in rap music are often reduced to sexual objects that serve as status symbols for male rappers. Nelly’s song “Tip Drill” is one of the songs that really bring to light the level to which women are reduced to sex objects in rap videos. 
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A scene from the music video for “Tip Drill”

To some extent we see this objectification of women in Tupac’s music, but where Tupac is unique from most rappers of his generation is that he also expressed a sincere concern for women in his music. “Brenda’s Got a Baby” tells the story of an uneducated 12 year old girl named Brenda who becomes pregnant. At one point Brenda considers abandoning the baby, but she decides to keep the child. Throughout the song Tupac also points out the lack of support that Brenda gets from her family. Brenda’s mother was never in her life and her father is a heroin addict.  By the end of the song Brenda is forced to become a prostitute to provide for herself and her baby. By the end of the song Brenda is murdered. The most troubling aspect of this song is that it was based on an actual story that Tupac read in the newspapers, in which a 12 year old girl gave birth to a baby which she abandoned in a trash can. “Mama’s Just a Little Girl” is another song by Tupac that also deals with the topic of teenage pregnancy.

In “Baby Don’t Cry” Tupac offers advice and reassurance to women that have been victims of rape. Tupac was also very troubled the fate of 15 year-old Latasha Harlins, who was  killed by a Korean store owner who thought that Harlins was trying to rob him, when in fact she was just trying to pay for a drink that she was about to buy. The music video for “Keep Ya Head Up” includes a tribute to Latasha. Tupac also mentions her in songs such as “Thugz Mansion,” “I Wonder if Heaven Got a Ghetto,” “White Man’s World,” and “Hellrazor.”


When it comes to Tupac’s treatment of women in his music “Dear Mama” and “Keep Ya Head Up” are easily Tupac’s two most famous songs. In “Dear Mama” Tupac expresses his love and gratitude towards his mother, who raised Tupac and his sister as a single mother. Tupac recognizes the hardships that his mother endured in raising him and honors his mother’s struggles in lines such as “even as a crack fiend, mama/you always was a black queen, mama” and “I finally understand for a woman it ain’t easy to raise a man.”

“Keep Ya Head Up” is Tupac’s tribute to struggling black women. Tupac raps: “I give a holler to my sisters on welfare Tupac cares, if don’t nobody else care.” Tupac also calls on men to treat their women better:
You know it makes me unhappy
When brothers make babies
And leave a young mother to be a pappy
And since we all came from a woman
Got our name from a woman
And our game from a woman
I wonder why we take from our women

“I Get Around” appeared on the same album as “Keep Ya Head Up.” Whereas“Keep Ya Head Up” is meant to inspire and uplift black women, in “I Get Around” Tupac depicts women as a sort of nuisance to him because now that he is a famous rapper with lots money he has women throwing themselves at him. “Keep Ya Head Up” pays tribute to the struggling single black mother. In “I Get Around” Tupac pays “respect to those who break their neck to keep their hoes in check.” So on the same album we get the depiction of women struggling to hold together their family under poverty and we also get the depiction of women as being out of control “hoes” that need to be held in check by men.

There is nothing empowering or uplifting for women in “I Get Around.” The song is not even empowering to Tupac’s male audience, as the song is essentially Tupac boasting about the women that he gets. In this song women are a sort of status symbol that represent Tupac’s newfound fame as a rapper. The boasting in this song is perhaps rooted in Tupac’s own past problems with women. Tupac noted that before he was a famous rapper he would walk around a club lonely and without a date, but after becoming a rapper Tupac explained women would go crazy about him. In “Same Song,” which was recorded when Tupac was a member of the group Digital Underground, Tupac raps:

Say I’m down, when I come around
Gas me and when they pass me they use to diss me

Harrass me, but now they ask me if they can kiss me

“How Do U Want It” is another example of Tupac reducing women to sexual objects in his music. The uncensored music video for “How Do U Want It” depicts an orgy of naked women in a strip club. Below are some clips from that music video:image

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The music video actually gets more graphic than what these clips represent. 
Nothing about this song and the music video is meant to be empowering or positive for black women. The music video also seems to play out one of Tupac’s fantasies. Tupac explained “it was always a fantasy for me to have sex with a lot of people in the room.” That is precisely what this music video was depicting. Not only was the content of the music video extremely sexual, but apparently so was the process of filming the music video. Tupac’s bodyguard Frank Alexander said that during the filming of this video Tupac had sex with so many women that he passed out.
Tupac’s justification for his dual depiction of women in his music was that when he spoke about “bitches” in his music he was not referring to all women, but a specific type of woman. In “Wonda Why They Call U Bitch,” Tupac explains why he calls certain women bitches. This song also served as a response to C. Delores Tucker, who had publically criticized Tupac for referring to women as bitches in his music. In this song Tupac attempts to explain that not all women are bitches, but that the type of women that are bitches are the ones that use their body to get ahead in life. The woman Tupac describes in this song dies of HIV by the end of the song due to her being promiscuous.


Although Tupac attempted to clarify what he meant when he called women bitch, the song is also problematic for a number of reasons. Tupac offers a cautionary tale for women that engage in reckless sexual behavior, but Tupac never rapped about the same situation for men. Tupac explained in an interview that the only promiscuous women that he considered to be bitches were the ones that slept with a lot of guys for money because they were putting a price on themselves. He also explained that: “Guys, when they sleep around, they do it for free.” The intentions behind sleeping with different partners may not be the same—although there certainly are men that do pick women based on their money or social status—but the consequences can be the same. In fact, rapper Eazy-E died of AIDs in 1995. Tupac singled out promiscuous women in “Wonda Why They Call U Bitch,” but the overall message of the song is one that applies to both men and women.


The other issue is that although Tupac attempted to make the distinction between women and bitches, this still did not prevent him from reducing women to nameless bitches in some of his songs. For example, in his song “Late Night” Tupac describes looking for “a bitch that’s half-black and Filipino” to have sex with. That's all Tupac has to say about the woman and in the next few lines he describes having sex with this half-black and Filipino "bitch" in his limo.

When it came to dealing with Biggie’s wife Faith Evans, Tupac only spoke of her in disrespectful and dismissive terms. He referred to her as “Biggie bitch” in “Why U Turn On Me.” During a performance at the House of Blues, Tupac claimed that he didn’t want to have sex with “that fat bitch” (referring to Faith), but he only did it to get back at Biggie. In this case Tupac wasn’t calling Faith a bitch because she was behaving like the woman described in “Wonda Why They Call U Bitch.” He was calling Faith Evans a bitch simply to get back at her husband. 

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Tupac with Faith Evans


The other thing to keep in mind about Tupac’s views on women is the fact that during his short life he had sex with a lot of groupies, but never seemed to have formed a long-lasting romantic relationship with a woman. Tupac was married to Keisha Morris for a short period of time, before she divorced him. Morris explained: “Our problem was communication. He was stubborn and wanted to be in control.”
At the time of his death, Tupac was with Quincy Jones’ daughter Kidada, which was interesting since Tupac had previously criticized Quincy for only having children with white women. According to Keisha Morris, Tupac was only with Kidada to get to Quincy. Tupac’s bodyguard Frank Alexander also suggested that Tupac’s relationship with Kidada wasn’t a meaningful one. Alexander explained that Tupac would regularly cheat on Kidada with other women and even threatened to kick Kidada’s ass, although Alexander added “For the record, he never hit Kidada.” Tupac’s inability to form lasting or meaningful relationships with women is a theme that is found throughout his music. In “I Get Around” Tupac raps “Don’t be picky, just be happy with this quickie” and in “How Do U Want It” Tupac describes his sexual encounter with various women as being “in and out like a robbery.” The sexual encounters Tupac often describes in his music are quick and rarely led to a long-lasting relationship. Tupac himself explained that in these numerous one-night stands he was not looking for any type of deeper connection. He explained: “I still enjoyed sex without the emotional connection.”
It was Tupac’s reckless attitude towards sex and women that eventually landed him in prison.  The irony in this is that Tupac had pointed out this very thing in “I Get Around” when he rapped:
It’s a lot of real G’s doing time

Cause a groupie bent the truth and told a lie


In 1995, Tupac was accused of sexually assaulting a woman. Tupac first met this woman at a club where she performed oral sex on him on the dance floor. They went back to Tupac’s hotel and had consensual sex. A few days later she called Tupac and they met up at a hotel. In the hotel room Tupac noticed that “Nigel and Trevor are looking at her like a chicken, like she’s, like, food.”  The woman massaged Tupac for a bit, but before anything could happen between the two of the Tupac said that some “niggas came in” and he froze up. Tupac did not say anything because, according to him, “That would be like I’m making her my girl.” The men came in and began touching her, and that is when Tupac left.
When Tupac woke up the woman was upset and crying, and blaming Tupac for allowing the men to rape her. Tupac denied playing any role in the sexual assault, although he did admit: “I feel ashamed—because I wanted to be accepted and because I didn’t want no harm done to me—I didn’t say nothing.” Based on Tupac’s account he essentially left her alone to be taken advantage of for his own safety and because he did not want to make it appear as if she was his girl.  Bakari Kitwana pointed out that in this situation “it was more important for him [Tupac] to keep the group from thinking this than to use his power within the group to protect her.” Kitwana goes onto explain that this is because of importance of “male bonding” in hip-hop culture. Tupac himself explained this when he rapped in “All About U” that he could “never put a bitch before my friends.”
The woman who accused Tupac of sexual assault claimed that she did not willing perform oral sex on Tupac and that he had forced himself on her when they first met in the club. Despite the fact that he forced himself on her, she still had consensual sex with him anyway. They met again, and according to her account she was messaging Tupac when some other people came in. She said: “Tupac grabbed my head and told me, ‘Don't move.’ I looked down at him and he said, ‘Don't worry, baby, these are my brothers and they ain’t going to hurt you. We do everything together.’” According to her, Tupac slammed her down on the bed and then he and the other men sexually assaulted her.

There was no evidence that Tupac had committed rape and he was ultimately sentenced to prison time for forcibly touching the buttocks of the woman that accused him of rape. He ended up serving 11 months before being released. The rape trial really bothered Tupac, which is reflected in some of the songs that he recorded after he was released from prison. In “Letter to My Unborn Child” Tupac denies that he could ever be a rapist. “All About U” and “Ambitionz Az a Ridah” also represent Tupac’s bitterness over the rape allegations and the untrusting nature of some women.

One artist that I think Tupac can be contrasted against is the Trinidadian calypsonian Black Stalin. In “Wait Dorothy Wait,” Stalin explained that despite the demands from his fans for him to sing a smut (a song with sexual content), there are too many serious issues going on in the world for him to sing smut. Stalin points to the poverty in Trinidad, the lack of Caribbean unity, and the apartheid regime in South Africa as more pressing issues that he has to address in his music. According to Stalin four verses and a chorus are too much lyrics to dedicate to a song about smut.
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Whereas Tupac often spoke of black women as sex objects, Black Stalin depicted black women as wives and mothers that held the responsibility for raising and holding together the black family. In “No Woman No,” Stalin plays the role of a husband who is convincing his wife not to leave him after years of marriage. He reminds her of all the struggles that they endured together over the years to raise their family.
“Together Forever” also depicts the struggles of a black man and a black woman to raise a family together. In the song Stalin praises his woman for the hard work she put in to help raise their children:
While you up dey in the kitchen and you working
I outside in the field and I planting
And when we come home we go pray to Orisha
To always bless we and keep we together
And under all dem adverse condition
We were still able to grow up we children
In “We Go Jam” and “Stay Giving Praises” Black Stalin depicts the black man and black woman united together and ready to face whatever challenges await them. In “We Go Jam,” Twiggy who sings alongside Stalin in this song, sings:
But from this black family
They can always expect problems
“Black Man Feeling To Party,” which was one of Stalin’s biggest hits, tells the simple story of a man taking his woman out for the night to go dancing. Although it is a dance song, Stalin has said numerous times that the song was also a social commentary on the importance of rekindling a relationship. 
Stalin did not only heap praises upon black women in his music alone. In an interview with his wife, she claimed that Stalin made her feel proud to be a black woman. Tupac most often depicted the relationship between black men and women as mainly a sexual one, whereas Stalin shunned away from writing smut and chose to depict black women as strong wives and mothers that struggle alongside their men to hold together their families. This is not to say that all of Tupac’s songs were devoid of depicting black men and black women working together to raise a family. For example, in “Better Dayz” Tupac tells the story of a man who lives in poverty with his girlfriend. Although they don’t have much, they appreciate being with each other and he is amazed to hear the news that she’s pregnant. But these types of songs are few and far in-between in Tupac’s large body of work.
Some of Tupac’s later work does seem to express regret over his treatment of women. In “White Man’s World,” Tupac acknowledges that in the past he took advantage of women and apologizes for doing so: “Apologies to my true sisters, far from bitches…It’s true, caught up in this world I took advantage of you.” “Never Call U Bitch Again” tells the story of a man vows never to call his woman a bitch again.
In one of his last interviews Tupac also pointed out that in the ghetto young black men are taught that the only thing that they have going for them is their sexuality:
But in the ghetto, that’s the type of shit that we’re taught. Just like when you’re in the army, you are taught to kill so you kill. You know what I mean? You’re taught that, by older niggas, we taught that, that the only thing you’re good for is your sexuality.
In the same interview Tupac went on to explain that with a new sense of self-confidence and self-esteem his opinion on sexuality changed. He explained he no longer wanted to be in a room with another man having sex with a woman, even though that used to be one of his fantasies, which he acted out on a number of occasions. Pictures from a sex tape of Tupac that was released a few years ago clearly shows Tupac in a room full of people while having sex.
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Tupac was beginning to recognize how insecurity and mental conditioning had made many black men mistakenly equate their sexuality as being a source of power or a representation of their manhood. This is also why Black Stalin is an important artist to use as a contrast to Tupac because Stalin’s depiction of black manhood was always one of a nurturer who struggled to ensure the safety of his woman and children. Tupac’s views on manhood were largely the result of the fact that he had no real father figure in his life while he was growing up. Tupac acknowledged that:
I hate saying this because whites love hearing blacks talk about this. I know for a fact that, had I had a father, I’d have had some discipline, I’d have had more confidence. Your mother cannot calm you down the way a man can. Your mother can't reassure you the way a man can. My mother couldn't show me where my manhood was. You need a man to teach you how to be a man.
Although polygamy was a common practice throughout Africa, in African societies manhood was not based on how many women a man could sleep with. A man’s status in the society was judged by his ability to be a producer for that society, so much so that one could not become a king  if they did not have the resources to carry out the hospitality that is expected of the king. Walter Rodney explained:
I came across a very interesting incident of a small chief in a Sierra Leone system who they were about to elect into a king and the guy says, “Well sorry, I'm not going to take that job. I just don’t have the funds to carry out the type of hospitality which is normally expected from a ruler.” That's his job—to keep an open house.
Women in African societies also held power in their own right. What we often find in hip-hop is is that the male and female roles have been perverted. Men often judge their manhood based not on their ability to provide for their family or their community, but by the money that they have or the women that they sleep with. Women in hip-hop music become symbols and sex objects because rappers think that is how they are supposed to relate to women.  Of course in the example of Black Stalin we see a black man who, in his music, relates to women as wives, as mothers, and as his partner in the struggle against racism.
Tupac’s depiction of women in his music was complex. In a sense Tupac broke away from the norm in hip-hop at the time by paying tribute to his mother and providing a positive message to struggling black women. In a number of songs Tupac demonstrated genuine concern for the issues that black women faced. On the other side of these positive songs about women, Tupac depicted women as objects of pleasure that he would frequently have one-night stands with. Tupac rarely sang about establishing long-term relationships with women, and in his own life he never formed a serious long-term relationship with a woman. Tupac was unable to completely escape the sexual objectification of women that has become commonplace in hip-hop, but Tupac also did manage to do a number of songs that depicted women in more positive and empowering roles than what is traditionally depicted in hip-hop.
Original author: D Omowale
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Dimensions of 2Pac: The Roots of his Activism

This is the first of a series of blog posts about rapper Tupac Shakur
 
The roots of the activism in Tupac’s music can be directly traced to the fact that his family members were political activists. His mother, Afeni Shakur, and his biological father were members of the Black Panther Party. Tupac’s stepfather Mutulu Shakur was a member of the Republic of New Afrika. Tupac’s step-aunt is Assata Shakur and his godfather was Geronimo Pratt.
 
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How Africa could feed the world - By Olusegun Obasanjo

Images of starving children, epitomised in news coverage from Ethiopia in the 1980s, have given Africa a reputation for famine that does an injustice to the continent’s potential.

 

It’s true that a recent report by three U.N. agencies said nearly 239 million in Africa are hungry, a figure some 20 million higher than four years ago. And recent crises in the Horn of Africa and Sahel certainly highlight the desperate uncertainties of food supply for millions – malnutrition still cuts deep scars into progress on health and education.

 

But the Africa Progress Panel and many others believe that Africa has the potential not only to feed itself, but also to become a major food supplier for the rest of the world

 

Consider, for example, Africa’s agricultural land. According to an influential recent analysis, Africa has around 600 million hectares of uncultivated arable land, roughly 60 percent of the global total.

 

And on the land that is being used, outdated technologies and techniques mean productivity is low. African cereal yields, for example, are just over one-third of the developing world average and have barely increased in 30 years. One major issue is that as much as 80 percent of Africa’s agriculture still depends on rain not irrigation.

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The Ancient City Of Kano

his essay is taken from the writings of Ibrahim Ado-Kurawa (2015) Sarkin Kano Muhammad Sanusi II A Public Intellectual and Accomplished Technocrat (2014) ‘The History, Dynamics and Character of Kano: Brief History of Kano 999 to 2003′ in Bako, A. et al (ed) Issues on Nigerian Peoples and Culture Ahmadu Bello University Press, Zaria and (2010) Kano State 1967-2010 Research and Documentation Directorate Kano State.

Kano State of the Federal Republic of Nigeria lies between latitude 130N in the North and 110N in the South, and longitude 80W in the West and 100E in the East. Kano State consists of 44 local government areas: Ajingi, Albasu, Bagwai, Bebeji, Bichi, Bunkure, Dala, Dambatta, Dawakin Kudu, Dawakin Tofa, Doguwa, Fagge, Gabasawa, Garko, Garun Mallam, Gaya, Gezawa, Gwale, Gwarzo, Kabo, Karaye, Kibiya, Kiru, Kumbotso, Kura, Kunchi, Madobi, Makoda, Minjibir, Kano Municipal, Nassarawa, Rano, Rimin Gado, Rogo, Shanono, Sumaila, Takai, Tarauni, Tsanyawa, Tudun Wada, Tofa, Ungogo, Warawa and Wudil. The total land area of Kano State is 20,760sq kilometers with a population of 9,383,682.

Kano City has been the capital of Kasar Kano. It was at various times referred to as the capital of the Kano Kingdom, the Kano Emirate or Kano State, since the earliest recorded time. It is located on latitude 12.000N and longitude 8.300E within the semi-arid Sudan savannah zone of West Africa about 840 kilometers from the edge of the Sahara desert. Kano has a mean height of about 472.45m above sea level. Kano Megacity has expanded over the years and has become the second largest city in Nigeria with a population of over five million people. It is presently made up of ten local government areas: Municipal, Gwale, Dala, Tarauni, Nassarawa, Fagge, Ungogo, Kumbotso, Warawa, Gezawa, Minjibir, Dawakin Kudu and Dawakin Tofa. Kano’s most enduring legacy Gidan Rumfa (Emir’s Palace) the seat of Kano’s prestigious Sarauta institution (Kingship) built over five hundred years ago is located in the Municipal Local Government Area. It is the oldest continuous seat of authority in sub-Saharan Africa. The Kano State Government House is located in Tarauni Local Government Area.

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‘Negros’ as the Original Indians??

Proof in the Jesuit Letters

The Book ‘Africans and Native Americans’ by Jack Forbes paints a very different picture of history than what most of Us were taught about the origins of Black People in the Western Hemisphere. We were taught that Black People came from Africa as slaves that the Red Indian was the true Native American, and that White people took ‘Black’ slaves from Africa and stole the land of the Red Indians. This story is nothing but a giant fiction, a novel made up by white historians to deceive the masses about the original history and peoples of the Americas.

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AFRICA - THE NAME - THE ORIGIN - THE MEANING - THE TRUTH

Every Nation, landmass, and Continent, has names that have evolved over the centuries, all of the names you think "Africa" was called in the distant past are only local names used by a few tribes, nations, and only refer to small sections of the continent.

There are multiple ancient african sources for the word AFRICA including the berber word "IFRI", and the berber word "AFER" which is the name of "BANU IFRAN" from Algeria and Tripolitania. Africa can also be derived from the Egyptian AF-RUI-KA, "to turn toward the opening of the KA".

The KA is the energetic double of every person and "OPENING OF THE KA" refers to a WOMB or BIRTHPLACE. Africa would be, for the ancient Egyptians, "THE BIRTHPLACE", these and many other ancient sources including HIEROGLYPHS make reference to the tittle or designation AFRICAN.

"The first word Afu carries the meaning of house. The second word Ra, is one of the names of the Divine Creator in Africa in general and Egypt in particular. The third word Ka carries the meaning of soul or spirit. When you put it all together you get the word, Afu-Ra-Ka.

The meaning of Afu-Ra-Ka is the house for the soul or spirit of the Divine Creator. This word in this form refers to the land of the Divine Creator. The Africans looked at their land as belonging to and created by the Divine Creator. Afu-Ra-Kani, a word derived from Afu-Ra-Ka, also carries the meaning of house for the soul or spirit of the Divine Creator, but in reference to the human being, male in particular.

The plural form is Afu-Ra-Kanu, which refers to all males as houses for the spirit or soul of the Divine Creator. Afu-Rait-Kaitnit is the female house for the soul or spirit of the Divine Creator. The plural form is Afu-Rait-Kaitnut, which refers to all females as houses for the soul or spirit of the Divine Creator. This is the philosophy of the Afu-Ra-Kans, (Africans).

The Afu-Ra-Kans, (Africans), believed that all human beings were the carriers and houses for the soul and spirit of the Divine Creator."

(This information comes from the book, The Destruction Of Black Civilization: Great Issues Of A Race, 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D. This book was written by our great ancestor and scholar, Chancellor Williams.)

Africa was also called “Akebu-Lan” (mother of mankind) and “Garden of Eden.” This name was used by the numerous tribes and ancient nations including the Nubians, Numidians, Khart-Hadddans (Carthaginians), and people of Kush (Ethiopians). However we never had a single name for the entire continent, we had numerous localized names, but there is no name that was used for the entire continent before Africa.

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ALKEBULAN? IS ALKEBULAN THE ORIGINAL NAME OF AFRICA?

NO, Alkebulan is just one of the many ancient local names of AFRICA. Among the many ancient names used to describe different areas of our land is Alkebu-lan, which means "MOTHER OF MAN", Alkebulan has also been interpreted as meaning "GARDEN OF EDEN".

Alkebulan and Africa are two of the oldest INDIGENOUS names. The many names of our land were local and NEVER referred to the entire continent. ALKEBULAN was used by the Egyptians, Nubians, Numidians, Khart-Haddans (Carthagenians), and Ethiopians (Kush).

Africa, the current misnomer adopted by almost everyone today, was adopted and used more widely and across many cultures to describe the continent likely because of the way it is easily translated into many indigenous languages. The ancient Greeks and Romans, and as result of the wide usage of the name Africa came over time to use Africa to describe the whole continent.

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A FEW MORE EXAMPLES OF INDIGENOUS SOURCES FOR THE WORD "AFRICA"

The AFARAK, also known as the AOURIGHA, were a Berber people who lived south of Carthage (North Africa). The terms AFARIK or AFRICA were used to denote the LAND OF THE AFARAK.

The Phoenician root FARAQUA, which suggests a separation or in other words, diaspora. The same root is found in some African languages, like BAMBARA.

In Sanskrit and Hindu, the root APARA or Africa denotes that which, in geographical terms comes "AFTER," or in other words the WEST OF INDIA. From the geographical position of India, the Asian country in which the East Africans established colonies, namely the DRAVIDIAN CULTURE, Africa is the western continent.

Another school of thought states that the word Africa comes from two Phoenician terms, one of which means an ear of corn, which was a symbol of fertility in that region, and the other PHARIKIA, which means land of the fruit.

Other local names used to descibe our land Africa: AOURIGHA, ETHIOPIA, CORPHYE, ORTEGIA, LIBYA, AFARIK, KEMIT, KUSH, NUBIA, OLYMPIA, GODONGWANA, HESPERIA, TA-MERRY or TA-MERE, OCEANIA.

BOTTOM LINE, "AFRICA" HAS MANY INDIGENOUS SOURCES NAMES

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QUESTION: WHY DO SOME NEGROES SAY AFRICA GOT IT'S NAME FROM PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO WHO WAS GIVEN THE ABDOMEN (NICKNAME) "AFRICANUS" AFTER HE DEFEATED THE GREAT GENERAL "HANNIBAL BARCA" AND THEN CALL THEMSELVES "ASIATIC"

YET THE SAME NEGROES NEVER SAY "ASIA" GOT IT'S NAME FROM THE BROTHER OF SCIPIO, WHOM WAS REWARDED FOR HIS VICTORIES IN "ASIA" WITH THE ABDOMEN "SCIPIO ASIATICUS"? LUCIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO WHOM WAS BETTER KNOWN AS "SCIPIO ASIATICUS" WAS GIVEN THE ABDOMEN (NICKNAME) "ASIATICUS" BY THE ROMANS JUST LIKE HIS BROTHER WAS GIVEN A ABDOMEN (NICK NAME) "AFRICANUS" WHEN HE DEFEATED HANNIBAL BARCA.

ANSWER: The word AFRICA is a indigenous name used by a dozen North and East African Tribes for thousands of years before the Roman republic was ever born, Rome got the name Africa from, guess who, "AFRICANS", so NO Africa is not named after any Romans.

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WAS AFRICA NAMED BY OR AFTER A ROMAN GENERAL CALLED SCIPIO AFRICANUS?

Even if you do not know the many indigenous words and meanings which translate to AFRICA it should be obvious to you that Africa is not a European word, there are not European cities of towns called AFRICA, if Africa was a European word their would be other places named AFRICA.

New Age Negroes will falsely tell you that AFRICA got it's name from the Romans, that is a LIE and I have proven this many times, the people spreading this LIE DO NOT KNOW HISTORY, and some of them DO KNOW THE TRUTH BUT CHOOSE TO SPREAD LIES.

AFRICA IS NOT A EUROPEAN WORD, and is not named after the ROMAN who's name was CORNELIUS PUBLIUS CORNELIOUS SCIPIO.

There are multiple ancient african sources for the word AFRICA including the berber word "IFRI", and the berber word "AFER" which is the name of "BANU IFRAN" from Algeria and Tripolitania. Africa can also be derived from the Egyptian AF-RUI-KA, "to turn toward the opening of the KA". The KA is the energetic double of every person and "OPENING OF THE KA" refers to a WOMB or BIRTHPLACE. Africa would be, for the ancient Egyptians, "THE BIRTHPLACE", these and many other ancient sources including HIEROGLYPHS make reference to the tittle or designation AFRICAN.

The Roman General who defeated HANNIBAL was named "PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO", he was best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle of the SECOND PUNIC WAR (218 - 202 BC) AT ZAMA, a feat that earned him the AGNOMEN (TITTLE) or NICKNAME "AFRICANUS", Scipio was also called by the nickname "THE ROMAN HANNIBAL". He was called "AFRICANUS" because he defeated the greatest AFRICAN General of all time.

ROME DID NOT CREATE THE NAME AFRICA, AND ANYONE WHO CLAIMS THEY DID IS MISTAKENLY or
PURPOSELY A LIAR A PHONY A FRAUD.

BOTTOM LINE : AFRICA IS NOT NAMED AFTER ANY ROMANS, THE ROMANS NAMED THEMSELVES AFTER US.

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AFRICANUS IS A "AGNOMEN" - WHAT IS A "AGNOMEN"?

To be clear Publius Cornelius Scipio was given a "AGNOMEN" for defeating a General named HANNIBAL BARCA. The AGNOMEN given to Publius Cornelius was "AFRICANUS". Publius Cornelius Scipio was given the TITTLE, "AFRICANUS". Many thousands of Romans and Africans were given the AGNOMEN "AFRICANUS".

Roman naming practices varied greatly over the centuries between the founding of Rome to the early Middle Ages. However, the practice of the elite during the period between the mid-Republic and the early Empire has come to be seen as the classical Roman naming convention. This is likely to be because this period provides good evidence of naming practices of the best documented class in the best documented Roman period.

By the end of the Republican era, a name for an aristocratic male citizen comprised three parts (tria nomina): praenomen (given name), nomen (or nomen gentile or simply gentilicium, being the name of the gens or clan) and cognomen (name of a family line within the gens). Sometimes a second or third cognomen, called AGNOMEN, was added.

The nomen, and later, cognomen were virtually always hereditary. During the Imperial period, the number and options for elements within a name considerably increased. The naming conventions for the later period grew out of a desire to indicate status, connections and ancestry, in a way that was much more wide-ranging than could be shown by the tria nomina.

After the cognomen became hereditary and lost its function as a nickname, a second nickname, or AGNOMEN, was appended to the name after birth—usually not immediately—to signify some personal characteristic or accomplishment.

A common AGNOMEN was Pius, for someone who displayed virtues like honesty, reverence to the gods, or devotion to family and state. Superbus ("Proud") and Pulcher ("Handsome") were also examples of AGNOMINA.

Unlike the nomen and cognomen, an AGNOMEN was usually not inherited unless the son also had the same attribute or did the same deeds, although some victory AGNOMINA like Augustus ("Majestic") and Germanicus ("the German Conqueror)") and of course Scipio Africanus ( the conquorer of Africa) eventually became handed down as additional cognomina.

An AGNOMEN (plural: AGNOMINA], in the Roman naming convention, was a nickname, just as the cognomen was initially. However, the cognomina eventually became family names, so AGNOMINA were needed to distinguish between similarly named persons. However, as the AGNOMEN was an additional and optional component in a Roman name, not all Romans had an AGNOMEN.

Pseudo-Probus uses the hero of the Punic Wars, Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, as an example:

“ propria hominum nomina in quattuor species dividuntur, praenomen nomen cognomen agnomen: praenomen, ut puta Publius, nomen Cornelius, cognomen Scipio, agnomen Africanus. "

(Men's personal names are of four types, praenomen, nomen, cognomen and agnomen: praenomen for instance Publius, nomen Cornelius, cognomen Scipio and agnomen Africanus.)

Marius Victorinus further elucidates:

“ I am agnomen extrinsecus venit, et venit tribus modis, aut ex animo aut ex corpore aut ex fortuna: ex animo, sicut Superbus et Pius, ex corpore, sicut Crassus et Pulcher, ex fortuna, sicut Africanus et Creticus. "

[Now the agnomen comes from outside, and in three styles, from personality or physique or achievements: From personality, such as Superbus ["Haughty"] and Pius [displaying the Roman syndrome of virtues including honesty, reverence to the gods, devotion to family and state, etc.], from physique, such as Crassus ["Fatty"] and Pulcher ["Handsome"], or from achievements, such as Africanus and Creticus [from their victories in Africa and on Crete].

"Africanus", "Creticus" and the likes are also known as victory titles. For example, Gaius Marcius Coriolanus earned his from the capture of Corioli.

SO AGAIN TO BE CLEAR SCIPIO IS NOT THE SOURCE OF THE WORD AFRICA, AFRICANUS IS HIS "VICTORY NAME", BECAUSE HE WON A WAR AGAINST GENERAL HANNIBAL BARCA IN AFRICA.

SUMMARY: The Roman General who defeated HANNIBAL was named "PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO", he was best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle of the SECOND PUNIC WAR (218 - 202 BC) AT ZAMA, a feat that earned him the AGNOMEN (TITTLE) or NICKNAME "AFRICANUS", Scipio was also called by the nickname "THE ROMAN HANNIBAL". He was called AFRICANUS, because he beat the greatest African General of all time.

Via Maurice Milles Mansa

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Some Little Know Black History Facts

Amenhotep III

The Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep III started the first form of mass communication through the use of stone scarabs. Amenhotep would have news of his latest achievements carved into these stones and these stones would be carried throughout the empire to inform the population of Amenhotep’s achievements.

 

 

There are actually more pyramids located in Nubian than in Egypt.


 

 




The University of Timbuktu (located in present day Mali) is one of the oldest universities in the world. According to historian Robin Walker, there are over 700,000 surviving manuscripts from the university, which are on different subjects such as medicine, history, theology, and geography.

 

 

 

The Walls of Benin is considered to be the largest man-made structure prior to the mechanical era. According to Fred Pearce, the Walls of Benin were four times longer than the Great Wall of China.


 

The Walls of Benin

 

An African slave in the United States named Onesimus helped to battle a smallpox outbreak by introducing his master (who was a doctor) to a method of smallpox inoculation that he had learned in Africa. Out of the 300 people than were inoculated, less than 10 died. This technique proved to be the most effective way to deal with smallpox until Edward Jenner’s vaccine.

 

 

 

The constitution for Haiti that was written by Toussaint L’Ouverture was the first constitution in history to outright ban both slavery and racial discrimination. This constitution was written in 1801. Keep in mind that America did not abolish slavery until 1865.

 

 

 

Martin Delany, who is often credited as being the Father of Black Nationalism, was among the first set of African Americans to be accepted into Harvard medical school. He also served as the first African American field-officer during the Civil War.

 

 

 

 
Ibrahim Njoya
Ibrahim Njoya of the Bamu kingdom invented a writing script for the Bamm language. This script was banned after the Bamu kingdom came under French colonial rule.

 

 

 

The defeat that the British suffered against the Zulus at the Battle of Isandlwana was one of the worst defeats in the history of the British Empire.

Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association, which was founded in Jamaica, expanded to the point that more than 40 different nations had a branch of the UNIA. Outside of the United States, Cuba had the second most branches of the UNIA. According to historian Tony Martin, “No area of significant black population in the world was without a UNIA branch.”



 

 

Some of my Books

 

The Popular Image of Rastafarians and Bob Marley                     The Black African Crisis in the Age of a Black President                        Kingdoms and Civilizations of Afric                The Historical Struggle of African Womanhood              African People in the Bible: An Essay

 

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African American Historical Personalities: Gallant Warriors for Freedom and Equality

IN THEIR OWN WORDS AND WRITING

There is a rich history of African American people that needs to be re-told and paid close attention-to. There have been and there are still men and women who are willing to put their life and fortune on the line just to see their people acquire complete freedom and equality so long denied them in the United States of America. These men and women have existed during the era of American Chattel Slavery and, through the times of the Black Codes, Jim Crow and the Civil Rights Movements. These men and women have used their own ingenuity and tactics to try and deflect and change the situation of their people under seriously trying circumstances and reality. Historians have justified this absence of slave voices in the history of slavery and the American people by insisting that , after all, the slaves left no record, accomplished little that was "noteworthy," and they did not have much history.

They somehow, conveniently left-out the laws and the legal and the draconian edicts and processes, as were applied to the people of African ancestry, which were, in many ways, an expression of social control. We are going to look at some of these people and what they had to do to uplift their enslaved people from the House of Bondage. This re-writing of some of the history of African American Slaves has been carried-out in this article because the subject been treated by most historians as a specialized and exotic entity, and not as a central focus of the study of the development of American people.

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Shaka the Zulu King and Military Genius

Life's Hard Knocks

One of the most fascinating leaders of early Africa was Shaka, born in 1786 and died in 1828. Some people have called him a conqueror and despot. His story was that of being brought-up the hard way. His mother Nandi, who was seduced by a chieftain called Senzangakhona, was broiled in scandal about their love affair. When the chief of Elangeni, closely related to the Zulu clan, died, he left one his children, a strong-willed Nandi orphaned, caught the eye of Senzangakhona. They could not get married because Senzangakhona's mother was from the Elangani people, and he already had two wives. Nonetheless, as a chieftain, he had no qualms flirting and flaunting the rule of exogamy respected among the clans. Shaka's father and mother were blood relatives, and their relationship was frowned-upon by both clans. When Nandi became pregnant, the clan was feeling humiliated because they had expected that the chief would show better judgement. When Shaka's mother asked the chief Senzangakhona to send for her, the elders sent back a word that this was not a case of pregnancy but that her child was an 'ishaka' (a convenient intestinal beetle on whom menstrual irregularities were usually blamed) The chief sent fro her and made her his third wife around 1787. The presence of Nandi created a lot of friction around the kraal.

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Origins Of The Name Africa

"The name 'Africa' comes from the Afar people, who lived (and live), at the southern end of the Red Sea." ~Professor Martin Bernal, author of Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization The Kamites (ancient Egyptians) term, 'Af-Rui-Ka,' meaning “Place of Beginnings.” Canaanites (the Greeks called them Phoenicians) term, 'Afar' means, 'Dust.' The Canaanites also used the term, 'Afryqah' which denoted a 'Colony,' referring to, Carthage (in Africa), the new city, being a colony of the Canaanites. An Arabic term, 'Ifriqiya,' is often assumed to come from the Roman, though some argue that the Latin term came from the Arabic. Afar: Afar is the name that people of the Northeast use themselves.
 
 
 
In the Amhara language they are called Adal; Arabs call them Danakil (Dankali); Oromo refer to them as Adali and neighboring Somali groups use the term Odali. In Tigrayan they are the Teltal. Afar is a more or less homogenous ethnic group. There are many Afar groups, but all consider themselves Afars. All groups speak the Afar language known as Afar-Af, except for the Irob group of the North, who speak Saho. Other groups are the Ankala, the Adhali and the Able (near Rarahita), the Uluhto, Ayrolasso, and Asabbakari, the Modhito (near Awsa), the Dammohoyta, and the Seka noblemen.
 
Other sources: Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture 3-volume set (pages 12-13), by Carole Elizabeth Boyce Davies Outlines of lectures on ancient history (originally published in 1850), by Charles John Abraham
 
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Publius Cornelius Scipio (at birth), was later called, Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus I, was a Roman general and and statesman of the Roman Republic. His father's name was, Publius Cornelius Scipio. One of his children's name was, Cornelia Scipionis Africana. He was best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle of the Second Punic War at Zama, a feat that earned him the agnomen 'Africanus,' the nickname "the Roman Hannibal." The term Africanus was indigenous to Africa and was passed down by the Berber people.
 
 
Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus I, was also a Roman general and statesman. He was the son of Publius Cornelius Scipio and the older brother of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus I. The names Africanus and Asiaticus were given in honor of military victories. *The myth is that the term Africa, came from the Romans, however they are only responsible for the spread of the word usage which was applied to the entire land mass. (Pictured: Afar women, during a ceremony, near the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden in Africa.)
 
Source: Dre Jordan
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PRESIDENT ROBERT MUGABE, THE "FATHER" OF INDIGENIZATION,THE TRUE AND ONLY AFRICAN ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT.

By Nimba Mhaat, International Economics and Politics Analyst.
NewsAgency RNA PHK PRESS correspondent for Africa.

Zimbabwe is today the only liberated and sovereign Black African nation due to this revolutionary policy of indigenization put in place by this great African leader: His Excellency Robert Mugabe. Don’t even say South Africa or Nigeria. They are all the pawns of the West. We are seizing the opportunity here to salute the victory of President Mugabe and the ZANU-PF at the presidential election over the stooge so-called “party” of MDC,the West’s local Black puppets. Despite, the US $2.7 billion that the European Union and US have financed their 3,500 NGOs,pro-MDC without forgetting the pirate radio stations based in Europe and America to intensively broadcast propaganda into Zimbabwe against President Mugabe and the ZANU-PF, the people of Zimbabwe know who is for their best interest and this is why the People’s Manifesto of ZANU-PF went home dry and clean.

President Mugabe has proven himself and to the rest of the world that he is the man with the interest of the African people in Zimbabwe and not for the West. As the founder of this nation, his idea and values are very well understood by the Zimbabweans. President Mugabe’s presidential victory is a resounding victory for the future of the African continent. His Zimbabwe’s Indigenisation Program is the real model for African economical decolonization under the diktat of the West. Hopefully many African politicians will look to Zimbabwe as a point of true reference to break away from the perverted capitalism or the gluttoism of the West.

The biggest insult on African people is to see the audacity for one country in particular the Western countries to come into any African country and literally “buy” or take by force the lands, assets which for many African people represent their key security and survival elements for the inhabitants. And going through this we have as African people ask ourselves these questions:What gives the right to the European people to grab lands in Africa?

Why the West is negatively acting toward the land reform or the indigenization process of the government of President Robert Mugabe if it was the only country in the world and the first one to implement this type of policy? Did the US, China, South Korea and many others countries around the world never protect their domestic, core reliance or national advantages by exempting them from any foreign ownership? Why is that an African country such as Zimbabwe for almost 100 years,yes you hear me,I said for a lasting 100 years,has seen its African people being discriminated against any socially, extrajudicially, politically and economically activities on their ancestral lands by aliens who came from Europe, are now taking back their proprieties and it become such a big fuzz?
Oooh, I see. Ah,because they are “Blacks”. That is why. This is exactly what the Caucasian/”White” people mind operate. For them, even being the last human beings to appear on the face of the earth, they feel themselves “superior” to anybody and especially the African people who are by no doubt the first human beings on earth and the fathers and mothers of civilization.

For 100 years ago, the European people through the British South Africa Company had owned every piece of Zimbabwe. From the 1890s, this part of Africa called Zimbabwe was under this White supremacist entity in which the African people were completely dispossessed from their ancestral land by the White people.
Their land and natural resources were taken violently and divided among European invaders so-called settlers. Imagine, a group of foreigners coming to your land and loath you and your land, culture, way of life and make you subjects and at the same time make your resources their assets as solely belonging to them.

Consequently, it took the determination of African people under the leadership of President Robert Mugabe to pick up arms and to resist the massive exploitative evil colonial system and exclusive exploitation of their ancestral resources, their God-given resources looted by the alien minority called Rhodesian white people. It took 10 years of heroic armed struggle for Mugabe and his comrades of ZANLA and ZIPRA the military wings of the two political parties ZANU and ZAPU to liberate Zimbabwe from the Aliens/ European/”White” people. It was in 1987 that these heroic parties formed the People’s Manifesto of ZANU-PF.

For 30 years of constructive leadership, the essence of ZANU-PF’s ideology is to economically empower the African people of Zimbabwe through the Indigenisation programme by enabling them to fully own their country’s God-given natural and human resources and the exclusively means of production to create by unlocking the value from those immense resources. This is the reason we dearly love president Robert Mugabe with this revolutionary program: the INDIGENISATION and what I call myself the AFRICANISATION. The indigenization is the conducive environment that recognizes Zimbabwe’s total ownership of all its natural resources that clearly demonstrates the expression of its national sovereignty. And nobody can take away from them.
Yes, indigenization is the real freedom and that has be expanded through the entire African continent which according to World Bank there is still an estimation of 65% of Africa’s best arable land is still controlled by White/Alien settlers or Western companies so-called multinational corporations under the fabrication term of “investors” . The World Bank has also estimated that there is as much as 70% of the net wealth in Africa is owned by non-African people. On so many levels, Africa is being over-looted by the West and the Western people are the first ones to say that “Africa is under-developed”. The African people must stop it because Africa is for African people. Seriously, I cannot see one ounce of sense in this insanity where we the African people are losing over our own resources and only a sliver of “White”/European so-called elites with their Negro nincompoops or traitors “winning” in these lame term of “investors” or “globalism” escapades. Really, who in blue blazes would even think that the way the

What could possibly go wrong with President Mugabe with his program of indigenization to better the lives of its citizens by giving them all the exclusive right to full possess and own their resources?You have to be a nut if you are an African person and even another race to think that the indigenization programme of the ZANU-PF and President Mugabe is bad for the Zimbabwean people.
So in a way, everyone in a community is a stakeholder in that endeavor and has investment there. The return should be stable and attractive domestic opportunities, the Zimbabweans and Africans in large. The establishment of the Harare Stock Exchange ( HSE ) which will be created under a platform called IndegeNex with the solely and exclusive participation of African-Zimbabwean people and 100% indigenously/Africaneously owned companies to empower the people is very encouraging programme.

The mining and extraction of precious resources, like oil, natural gas, gold, zinc, and platinum, diamond, ore, cobalt must be exclusively under the control of the African people ,but not to go and enrich the Western corporations. We can’t allow our resources being shipped to the West and in return the Western companies sell to us with high premium. We the African people must not only control its raw materials but also by emphasizing on the building manufacturing capacity by turning our natural resources to finished goods. African people must indigenize/ africanise their economies at all level. We suppose to be the number 1 world power because we possess 90% of all the world natural precious resources.

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THE LOOTING OF AFRIKA BY THE WEST FROM SLAVERY VIA COLONIZATION UNTIL TODAY - Nimba Tiannimbo Mhaat

THE LOOTING OF AFRIKA BY THE WEST FROM SLAVERY VIA COLONIZATION UNTIL TODAY.

By Nimba Tiannimbo Mhaat, International Trade, Economics, and Politics Analyst.

This image here really speaks volume. We see here a turn over oil-loaded truck and the cars are around it and pumping the oil/fuel out of this truck. That’s exactly the situation Africa and African people are facing with the rest of the world in particular the Western world. Africa for close to 600 years has been the meat and drink of the West.
To justify their demoniac action and to try at the best to hide their evil nature, the West has always developed thesis based upon lie,propaganda,illusion by reinforcing their racist perceptions of “superiority” and without them( the Westerners),the African people will be living in the “darkness”. But the reality is that Africa is the epicenter of the world. The West needs more Africa than Africa needs the world.

Curiously the people who are pretending that African people need them more,are the ones who have always made the move toward Africa. One troublesome fact is that the West in its strategy to invade Africa, has been using one-dimensional view of negatively portraying Africa with racist perceptions such as corrupt-governments which in reality they are the main agents of the corruption,racist perception HIV epidemic in African/”Black” people which in reality they( Westerners) are the manufacturers of these gems in the lab against us .Another racist perception of the Western world toward Africa are famine and drought ravaging a huge area of Africa which in reality the West is behind the confiscation of vast piece of rich lands to cultivate foods that will be for the most part exported to Europe,Asia and Middle region.
Why is that Africa the supposedly “cursed”, “poor” continent has been and still is the “lust”, longing for the West? What the Western countries: US,European Union and others are coming to seek in Africa at the current days? Is that for the pleasure to wander through Africa and “save” the African people from famine, diseases?
And if African/ “ Black” people were so unhealthy, full of diseases, why the “White” people need them as their slaves to go work for nothing in the “new world” so-called “ America” after Christopher Colombus “discovered “ it?

The reality is the West by nature evil has been living off Africa and continue to do so with the collaboration of some low-class African people. The West has “strategic” business and defense interests in the African’s vast mineral deposit countries such as Congo,Guinea-Conakry,Zimbabwe by keeping their attack-dogs( their puppets) in the region at the exception of Zimbabwe to facilitate the swallowing of these minerals.
The cocoa of Cote d'Ivoire for the most part and Ghana is feeding the Western countries chocolate and candy industry and nothing for the African people. The uranium of Niger,and Namibia is feeding the nuclear power of the West. The diamonds of Namibia,Congo,Cote d'ivoire,Sierra Leone,etc are exploited by DeBeers for these Western jewelry companies coffers. The Aluminium of Guinea-Conakry is feeding the car,airplane industries of the West,etc...
The Western countries by the name of “investment”/ “investor” signed some lopsided contracts with their pawn African governments in place where for the most part these Western multinational corporations are the ones which dictate the terms of “trade agreements” . When some African governments that have the courage to engage in a win-win deals,these western companies always try to outmaneuver these governments in the negotiations just to have the big share from our vast resources that our ancestors left us.
Africa is the richest land on earth. Africa possesses 95% of the whole mineral resources. Africa possesses the vast majority of rich soils where 100% of all the flora and fauna are located. Everything you name it, Africa has it and the whole world want everything in Africa.Why the West, this “civilized” , “developed” region,to maintain its looting,neo-colonialism habits,its pursue of acquisition of materials,has to once again gut Africa?
The African people must understand that the “poverty” that they are in and the West is talking about is not accidental,but rather designed by the same people: European people.

 

As says an African proverb: “ No matter how long the night will last, the dawn will always appear and let the sun shines”. That’s to say, speaking about this fallen loaded-oil truck which represents Africa,will be turned up on its wheels,be recharged and continues its journey of progress.And this time will be plenty of trucks full of energetic materials belonged to African people and these parasite cars that were pumping the oil out of the fallen trucks won’t have any more the opportunity to do so.
So, African/Kemet/Moor brothers and sisters, all the evidence are around us and that’s nobody loves us except what we have in our land and that’s why they continue to create division among us to devitalize us because the enemy knows that when we are truly unify,nobody can stop us. That’s why we have to strengthen our instrument which is African Union in order to make Africa stronger.Yes,this truck will be repaired and it will hit the road again.And this truck loaded with resources of live,we have our drivers such as president Laurent GBAGBO( Cote d'Ivoire/Ivory Coast),president Robert MUGABE(Zimbabwe),president Bechir( Sudan), president Isaias Afewerki( Eritrea)the ex-presidents like Thabo MBEKI( South Africa) ,and Jerry Rawlings( Ghana),and others great resistant African leaders who are fighting with courage to maintain our truck on good composure.We will win this war because we are on the right side of the history.VIVA AFRIKA AND ITS BEAUTIFUL AND PROUD CHILDREN ALL OVER THE WORLD.

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