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Obeah Man and African Culture in Entertainment

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Acommon theme of this blog is the reality that entertainment is often used as atool against African people, through which history can either be distorted orthrough which African are reduced to simplistic stereotypes and caricatures. Comicbooks are no different. One case in particular that I believe is really ridiculousis a villain in the Batman comics that is called Obeah Man.

Fromthe start we see the usual vilification of African religious traditions andculture in the form of a bad guy named Obeah Man. Obeah, which is widely practicedthroughout the Caribbean, is considered a taboo and often associated with evil.The calypsonian Shadow did a song entitled “Obeah,” which was a sort of parodyof the fact that some associate Obeah with “dealing with Satan.” Obeah was so vilifiedthat it was illegal in many Caribbean territories.

Whatmakes the character of Obeah Man even more ridiculous is that he is a Haitianvoodoo witchdoctor. The writers of this character are not only attempting tovilify African cultural practices (obeah and voodoo), but they don’t even knowthe difference between the two. Comicbooks (and popular media in general) are filled with examples of the vilificationof African culture, but even by those standards this is pretty bad—and downrightridiculous to anyone that knows anything about obeah and voodoo. It is alsothings like this which really reinforce the fact that as African people we haveto start controlling our own narratives. It’s not enough to point out the mediastereotypes and misrepresentations of African people and our culture, but wehave to provide alternatives. AsI did the last time I did a blog on comic books, I will end this by promotingBrotherman because he is one example of a black superhero that was not only writtenby black people, but a comic that was owned and produced by black people (ouralternative to white owned DC and Marvel)Original author: D Omowale
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Education and Self-Esteem in the Black Child 60 Years Later - Dwayne Wong

Education and Self-Esteem in the Black Child 60 Years Later - Dwayne Wong
Noticing that black children did not have a kindergarten, Ida B. Wells proposed that one should be established. Her idea was met with backlash from black parents who insisted that their children must only be taught in white schools. Wells was obviously surprised that some parents preferred “to let our children be neglected and do without kindergarten service than to supply the needs of their own.” This story is really important in understanding how African people in the United States approach education. As a community we have consistently failed to educate our own children, and have continued to make it the reasonability of others to provide that education. We have now reached 60 years since the Brown v. Board of Education decision which ruled that segregated schools were unconstitutional, yet this anniversary is a somber one as we are reminded how far we still have to go to provide equal education for African children. 

 

 

One of the arguments used against segregated schools in the Brown v. Board of Education was Kenneth Clark’s doll test which demonstrated the considerably low self-esteem of black children. What Dr. Clark found was that most of the black children tested had a considerable preference for white dolls. The same doll test was done in 2006 by Kiri Davis and the results were essentially the same. This was not an American phenomenon either, as the same doll test was done in Trinidad and it was discovered that the black children in Trinidad demonstrated an even greater preference for the white doll. This prompted the secretary general of Trinidad and Tobago teachers union to state: “Even in Trinidad, where 85 percent of the people are black and we have a black government, we have not recovered from 400 years in which blacks knew the white man as the boss.”

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African Kings and Queens in the New World

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Whendiscussing the slave trade we often use language that really fails to capturethe reality of the situation. For example, take the word “slave.” We so oftenpassively speak of slaves coming to the New World that we forget these were menand women that had professions before they were enslaved. As Walter Rodneysaid, “Strictly speaking, the African only became a slave when he reached asociety where he worked as a slave. Before that, he was first a free man andthen a captive.” Beforebeing a slave, Africans held various occupations. There was the example of Omar ibn Said,who was a scholar in Futa Toro before he was captured. In the video below,Edward Robinson describes his ancestor who was a sculptor in Nigeria beginningat 3:40:Therewere also a number or members of royalty in Africa that were brought to the NewWorld to be enslaved. Many of us in the Diaspora often speak of beingdescendants of kings and queens, and in this blog I will show some of the kingsand queens that we came from. The most well-documented and famous example ofAfrican royalty coming to America was the story of  Abdul Rahman Ibrahima Sori, who wasan African prince, military commander, and scholar from Futa Jallon. His story is told in the book Prince Among Slaves. In the Kongo Kingdom, Afonso isremembered as being one of the first African monarchs to attempt to put an endto the slave trade. Afonso was concerned about the fact that the Portugueseenslavers were kidnapping his people so frequently that the kingdom wasbecoming depopulated. The Portuguese paid no attention to Afonso’s requests toend Kongo’s involvement in the slave trade and some slave traders even tried toassassinate him. Eventually Afonso lost some of his own nephews andgrandchildren to the slave trade. They were enslaved in Brazil. There is alsothe case of a Ghanaian chief named Ndorkutsu, whose grandfather and grandsonwere tricked into boarding a slave ship and the ship subsequently brought themto Cuba. Nanny, the famous maroon leader in Jamaica, came from a royal familyin Ghana.  Two of the most important personalitiesin the history of the struggle against slavery, Toussaint L’Ouverture andMartin Delany, were both grandsons of African royalty. Delany was the grandsonof a Mandingo prince and Toussaint’s great-grandfather was an African king in thekingdom of Ardra. The most interesting case of African royalty in the Diasporais the case of King Julio Pinedo of Bolivia. Pinedo has the distinction ofbeing the only African monarch in the Americas. Julio Pinedo

As a child Pinedo noticed that peoplewould refer to his grandfather as a king. It was after his grandfather diedthat Pinedo was shown a book about a guy named Bonifaz, who was a Senegaleseking that was sold into slavery. Pinedo learned that he was a direct descendantof Bonifaz and he was crowned as the king of Africans in Bolivia.What we have to keep in mind as African people is that we did notcome over as slaves. Before being enslaved we came as kings, queens, artists,lawyers, scholars, famers, and other professions. 

Original author: D Omowale
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Selma: Obama’s Speech 50 Years After

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In 1965, a group of demonstrators—whichincluded Martin Luther King, John Lewis, and others—marched from Selma toMontgomery in an attempt to win voting rights for African Americans. During thefirst march an event that has come to be known as “Bloody Sunday” took place inwhich protesters were beaten. Amelia Boynton Robinson, who was one of the keyfigures of the march, was beaten unconscious. Fifty years after this event, itis very easy to see some of the apparent changes that have been made. Theprotestors did in fact win their struggle and African Americans gained equalvoting rights. The election of Barrack Obama, perhaps more than any eventwithin the fifty years after the Selma march, demonstrated the increase inpolitical rights that African Americans gained. Yet, listening to PresidentObama speak on the 50th anniversary of the march, one is notcompletely reassured that African Americans really made progress.Just the year before, the nation wasrocked by the death of 18-year old Mike Brown at the hands of a police officerand the rioting that ensued when the officer that killed Brown was not evenindicted for the shooting.  This incidentcame after the death of Eric Garner in New York, who was choked to death by thepolice, even as he screamed that he could not breathe. Shortly after that JahmielCuffe was held down and had his head stomped by police officers. Keep in mind, thatall three men were unarmed. Then after Mike Brown’s death, there was the deathof 12-year old Tamir Rice. He was in the park playing with a toy gun, whichpolice officers mistook for a real gun and they shot Rice. They then handcuffedRice’s 14-year old sister. In the midst of these events, which all happened ina short space of time, there was also a prosecutor clearing all of the chargesagainst the officers that shot and killed 8-year old Aiyana Jones after theofficers broke into her home. The week leading up to the 50thanniversary speech given by Obama, there was the death of a homeless man named“Africa.” Like all the other victims mentioned, he was unarmed, yet the policeofficers found it necessary to use violent force on him. An entourage of policeofficers fought Africa down to the ground and then shot him. Although Africadid not have a gun, one officer shouted “Drop the gun.” Also taking place inthe same week as the 50th anniversary speech, was that the chargesagainst 17-year old Enrique Del Rosario were dropped. He was charged withassaulting an officer, but the charges were dropped when video evidence showedthat the officer was lying. The cops had brutally beaten the 17-yead old andthen accused me of assaulting them. Finally, there were the protests about theshooting of unarmed 19-year old Tony Robinson, who was shot and killed the daybefore Obama gave his Selma speech. Malcolm X spoke of this very thing when hesaid: “They attack the victim and then the criminal who attacked the victimaccuses the victim of attacking him. This is American justice.” This was the background to Obama’sspeech, yet, for the most part, Obama really did not address this. He brieflyspoke about Ferguson, stating: “What happened in Ferguson may not be unique,but it’s no longer endemic, or sanctioned by law and custom; and before theCivil Rights Movement, it most surely was.” How can so many cases of policebrutality towards African Americans happen at such frequency, yet policeviolence not be “endemic?” Moreover, the fact is that the law is often on theside of the officers that commit these brutalities. In his speech Obama did warn againstmaking the mistake of believing that racism has been banished, but I would alsoargue that the myth of believing in progress where there is none is just asdangerous. Obama spoke to this when he said: “If you think nothing’s changed inthe past fifty years, ask somebody who lived through the Selma or Chicago orL.A. of the Fifties.” Certainly those elders that lived through the events of1965 can attest to how things have changed and there can be doubt that thingshave changed, but are those changes proof of progress?

Obama mentioned Chicago, where he servedas a Senator before being elected president. This is the same Chicago where awoman named Shirley Chamber had buried her fourth and final child.  All four of them had been killed due to gangviolence, but again the violence in Chicago and other black communities wasnever mentioned by Obama. Despite the optimism that Obama spoke of in hisspeech, the reality of the situation for African Americans is that we are stillin a state of oppression and misery. That is what really should have beenaddressed in that speech.

Other than the advancement ofindividuals such as Obama, in the 50 years since Selma it is difficult to pointto any area where African Americans, as a whole, have advanced since the 1960s.In terms of ownership, we own less in 2015 than we did in the 1960s and ourcommunities are in disarray. The speech demonstrates the disconnect betweenpoliticians such as President Obama or Congressman John Lewis that can speak ofprogress, while seemingly ignoring the frustrations of the African masses inthe United States. 

Original author: D Omowale
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Africans vs. African Americans: A Historical View

Africans vs. African Americans: A Historical View




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"I have recently had the pleasure of reading your autobiography, and it occurred to me that if leading thinkers and workers of the African race had the opportunity of exchanging thoughts across the Atlantic, the present century would be likely to see the solution of the race problem."

 

-Ghanaian J.E. Casely Hayford writing to African American Booker T. Washington

 

 

 

I often see Africans in the Diaspora speaking about how Africans from the continent dislike them. I won’t deny that at least some Africans have these views and that over the past few years relationships between global African people has deteriorated in many ways, but when one looks at the historical relationship between the Diaspora and Africa we see that there always has been a connection between the Diaspora and the African continent that has influenced both sides. In this blog I will give a number of historical examples.

 

 

 

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Quotes on Shadism and Mixed Race Identity Confusion

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Thefollowing is a collection of quotes related to the issue of shadism and racialidentity of mixed race black people:“Lightor dark complexion, its one place we all from.”“JohnButler’s assimilated black displayed a confident demeanor as he attempted topass himself off as a white man. The owner claimed that this fair-skinned slavewould present himself as free. Describing his runaway as a ‘yellowish’ mulatto,the owner also noted that the fugitive would try ‘passing as a white man.’Thomas Ledwith claimed that his slave Ned or Edward Dixon, a ‘bright quadroon,’would attempt to ‘pass for a white man’ because of his straight hair.”-LarryEugene Rivers discussing how slaves would try to pass for white to obtain theirfreedom“‘Causeif your ‘plexion high, high, high If your complexion low, low And if your ‘plexion in between, you're anAfrican”“NegroAmerica is set up the same as white America. The lighter skinned a negro, themore significant a role he can play. (It has always been the one who lookedwhite who made it in negro America. This was the man with the position, theinfluence, this was the man who usually got the white man's best job.) Inbetween light negro America and Black negro America (in terms of color), thereis a special category of people, who are assigned the name of red niggers.These are the people who are light enough to go into light negro America, butdo not have Caucasian characteristics. They don't have straight hair or whitefeatures. So they can go either way, depending on them. They can operate inBlack negro America or at the outer fringes of light negro America. Raceprejudice in America becomes color prejudice in negro America. That which iscultural prejudice by whites against Blacks becomes class prejudice in negroAmerica. To distinguish themselves, negroes assign class distinctions. Here wefind the instituting and substituting of parallel values. Negroes assume thatwhat is good for white America is good for negro America.”

“Firstof all, I was never white. But you will say this to those that always prefer tosee in me only a thin nose, a white father, a parda (brown) mother and a verylight-skinned sister with straight hair. They spent my whole life trying toconvince me that my parda skin, of a light tone, would make me a menina branca(white girl), but I never accepted this.”

-Regiany

“Likethe lighter children might be considered as white—and the darker may beconsidered as black you know, so—it's a really different way of perceivingit—and for us of the black movement in Brazil—we think that this—the way howthis issue of race works in Brazil—it's a kind of a weapon against us—becauseit divides the black population.”“Blacksand Yellows, whom the refined duplicity of Europeans has for a long time endeavoredto divide; you, who are now consolidated, and make but one family; withoutdoubt it was necessary that our perfect reconciliation should be sealed withthe blood of your butchers.”“EvenI don’t know how to define myself. I consider myself black, mulatto. White, no”“Ihad to discover that I was black. And I discovered that I was black in America,when I first went to New York. Most Dominicans don’t discover that they areblack until they go to New York. And all of a sudden, I felt that my roots werein Africa, not in Spain—although, even today, everybody here says that themotherland is in Spain.”

“Onthis occasion, I was warned to keep extremely quiet, because two guests hadbeen invited. One was the town constable, and the other was a free colored man,who tried to pass himself off for white, and who was always ready to do anymean work for the sake of currying favor with white people.”

-HarrietJacobs“if we are black, brown,yellow or near white, the responsibility for that accident is not ours, but thetime has now come for us to get together and make ourselves a strong andhealthy race.”-Marcus Garvey"Skin color does not interfere with your race. I have fair skin,but my maternal and paternal grandparents are black, so I say that I’m black.My family came from the Northeast, my light eyes maybe a legacy of the Dutchheritage."

-Vanessa Jesus Souza

Original author: D Omowale
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The Root of Tribalism in Africa

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“Ethnicdifferences exist; of course they exist on the African continent. They are notnecessarily political differences, however. They don’t necessarily cause peopleto kill each other. They become so-called ‘tribalism’ when they are politicizedin a particular framework. And in post-independence Africa they have beenpoliticized largely by sections of the so-called African elite.”

TheEuropean colonialists used the ethnic differences between Africans to theiradvantage through divide and conquer tactics that either created or reinforcedethnic differences. Ethic differences did exist, but they were not as rigidlydefined as Europeans would later define the concept of the tribe. For example,the Asante and Fante of Ghana would be, by European definitions of tribes,considered different tribes and thus any conflict between them would beconsidered tribalism. Joseph Casely Hayford, himself a Fante, described adifferent relationship between the two. He explained that the Asante and Fantewere “by language, traditions, customs, and laws…practically one people.”Although the two groups were at odds with each other and often fought—which theBritish colonialists took full advantage of—they were essentially thesame people. Hayford notes that prior to the British getting involved, the warsbetween the Asante and Fante were mainly fought over control over trade routes.They were not fighting each other simply because they hated each other for“tribal” reasons.

WalterRodney explains a similar thing between the Hausas and Ibos in Nigeria. Theyfought each other over control of trade, political expansion, and for religiousdifferences, but at no point in the pre-colonial history of the two do we findHausas massacring Ibos like what happened in the events leading up to theBiafra War. Thereare other facts to look at, such as the fact that many African Empires weremade up of multiple ethnic groups, such as the Mali and Songhai Empires. Hadtribal identities been so rigid such empires would not have existed. Andalthough many African states expanded their territory and influence throughwarfare, there are also many examples of different groups willing incorporatingthemselves into larger kingdoms or empires. Shaka, for example, was did notonly wage war on nearby groups; some of them willingly joined with the Zulus.Likewise, in Ethiopia, many groups opted to peacefully join Menelik’s empirerather than fighting against him. In Destructionof Black Civilization Chancellor Williams explains that the Lunda Empire’sexpansion was not one based on warring against other people. The Lunda Empirewould use oral history to demonstrate to other independent states that theycame from a common ancestry. The Lunda only waged war on those that rejectedtp willing unite with the Lunda Empire. The empire of Kanem-Borno was born as a fusion of the Kanembu and Borno people. It was also acommon practice in many African societies that those who were conquered andforced into servitude would eventually be incorporated into the society. InDahomey, for example, captives that worked as domestic slaves were absorbed into thepopulation as freemen and their children were considered citizens of Dahomey.InRwanda the conflicts were caused between the Tutsi and Hutu by Belgian divideand rule tactics. To help reinforce the differences the Belgians alsointroduced ID cards for Tutsis and Hutus. These same ID cards would be used toindentify Tutsis from Hutus during the 1994 massacre. Uganda, Sudan, and Djiboutiare other examples of African nations that have suffered internal conflicts asa direct result of colonial divide and rule policies. In South Africa there wasthe Bantu Education Act which promoted tribal differencesEthnicdifferences did exist in Africa, but rarely did it lead to the type of violenceand massacres that we’ve seen in the post-colonial. Much of the problems havetribalism that we have seen in post-colonial Africa has much of its roots incolonial divide and rule policies, as well as the politicization of tribal identities.African politicians have used these ethnic differences much in the same wayEuropeans have to further divide and exploit their own people. This is a factthat George Ayittey points out when he asks: “Ever noticed that those African leaderswho preach national unity and denounce tribalism are the same ones who surroundthemselves with members of their own tribes?” The key to overcoming the problemof tribalism in Africa is in recognizing how ethnic identities have become rigidlydefined political identities that divide African people and hinder theabilities to create a united mass movement.Original author: D Omowale
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Dimensions of 2Pac: The Tragic Self-Destruction

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“Oneof the most prevailing mentacidal myths in the Black community is that streetsense is positive. What is really being inferred is that Whites do not controlthe streets in the Black community nor the behavior of Blacks on those streets.This is untrue. Whites have more control, or at least as much control, overbrothers and sisters in the streets than over those in universities. Streetsense generally prepares Blacks to deal with one another in very destructiveways and then the Whites wipe-out the winner. The population of prisons, drugprograms, and funeral homes verify this reality.”

-BobbyE. Wright

Environmentplays an important factor in ones development. I explained this a bit when Iwrote about Michael Jackson and how, despite all the pride that he had in hisblack identity and his African roots, the scars that his childhood left on himmade it difficult for him to truly love and embrace himself. We see a similarthing with Tupac. Tupac grew up in poverty. His mother was addicted to crack,he had no father figure in his life, and at one point he was homeless andliving on the streets. Despite this, Tupac saw himself as “the rose that grewfrom concrete.” Tupac wrote:

we wouldn’t askwhy a rose that grew from the concrete for having damaged petals, in turn, wewould all celebrate its tenacity, we would all love its will to reach the sun,well, we are the roses, this is the concrete and these are my damaged petals,don’t ask me why, thank god, and ask me how.

Tupacsaw himself as being that rose in that he was able to achieve success, despitethe harsh environment that he grew out of. The tragic story of Tupac was thathe had potential to achieve much, not only as an entertainer, but as a leader.The video below demonstrates the type of insight and intelligence Tupac had ata very young age:

Peopleoften mention Tupac’s youth and what he achieved at such a young age when discussinghis potential. Quincy Jones does that here when he explained:If Malcolm Xdied at 25 he would have been a street hustler, named Detroit Red. If MartinLuther King died at 25 he would’ve been known as a local Baptist preacher. Andif I had died at 25 I would’ve been known as a struggling musician. Only asliver of my life’s potential.I’veactually seen a number of people compare Tupac at 25 to where Martin LutherKing and Malcolm X were at when they were at that age. Obviously, Tupacachieved more fame at that point, but I think the overlooked aspect is thedirection that the three men’s lives were on. At 25, King’s role as a Baptistpreacher helped to prepare him later for his role as a civil rights leader. At25, Malcolm was educating himself in prison and by the time Malcolm was 27 hewas one of the leading ministers within the Nation of Islam. At the age of 25Malcolm and Martin’s lives were heading towards the path of becoming great leaders.Tupac, for all of his potential, was going down the path of self-destructionand he did not have the guidance to stop himself.Ialso want to point out that Tupac’ success at a young age may have also workedto his disadvantage. King and Malcolm were able to grow into their roles asleaders over time, but Tupac became a musical superstar before he was fullymatured and even able to take on the mantle of a leader within the blackcommunity. For this reason he made a number of mistakes and blunders along theway. Tupac expressed the ability to recognize his mistakes and to grow fromthem, but he was never able to rise above the environment he came from and thathe was surrounded by. Tomake one final point about Tupac’s age, we have to keep in mind that Nas wasabout 20 years old when he released Illmatic,which is still considered one of the greatest albums in hip-hop history.Throughout his career Nas has demonstrated conscious and revolutionary themesin some of his songs, but he never grew into the caliber of leader that Malcolmand King were, so Tupac achieving such success at a young age was not aguarantee that he would have grown to become a powerful leader in thecommunity. I would make the argument that in some ways Tupac’s own politicalconsciousness was regressing during the latter months of his short life andthat he began straying away from his potential.Muchof this regression was related to Tupac’s affiliation with Death Row Records andhis getting caught up in the East Coast-West Coast rivalry that began while hewas in prison. Tupac was in a difficult situation. He was in prison for sexualassault charges and facing as much as four and a half years in prison. The onlyones putting out bail money for Tupac was Death Row. Tupac recognized that notonly would signing with Death Row get him out of jail, but it would give himthe chance to work alongside some of the most successful people in theindustry.  People that were close toTupac were worried about the young rapper’s future considering the reputationthat Death Row Records (and Suge Knight in particular) had, but Tupac had fewalternatives, so he signed with Death Row and shortly after being released fromprison Tupac released what was, from a sales standpoint, the most successful album of his career.Therivalry between East coast and West Coast rappers dominated much of Tupac’sthinking throughout the final months of his life, so much so that there was anoticeable regression in Tupac’s own political consciousness. In 1991 Tupac wascriticizing the policies and racism of the American government. If he were to make a statement like “overthrow the government” during this time period hewould probably be talking about the actual government—much like Public Enemy in their “Rebel Without a Pause.” In this interview from 1996, Tupac was talking aboutBad Boy Records and Nas as “the government” and urging East Coast rap fans tooverthrow that government:

That’spolitical regression. Tupac went from addressing serious issues like policebrutality to getting involved in insignificant rap beefs that really did notimpact the lives of most black people. Tupac was mistaken in referring to Bad Boysas the government because within the black community they held no power, beyondthe fact that Puffy, Biggie, and others enriched themselves from sellingalbums, the same way that Death Row Records did. Tupac closes the interview bysaying Death Row Records would bring a new government that would feed everyperson in New York, but Death Row did not even achieve that in the West Coast.Tupac here was blurring the lines between genuine nation building and communitybuilding activism with selling albums. He seemed to be equating a few talentedrappers selling albums with real black empowerment. Given the politicallyconscious and revolutionary ideas that Tupac expressed earlier in his career,it is disappointing to see him talking about his beef with New York rappers asif it represented some sort of genuine revolutionary struggle.

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Dimensions of 2Pac: Tupac and Women

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Tupacwas known as an artist that could at times be very contradictory. One of theaspects where Tupac’s complexity is reflected the most is in his treatment ofwomen in his music. Tupac complex and at times conflicting views on women arealso related to the larger issue of the disruption in the relationship betweenblack men and black women. I pointed out in a previous blog that women held substantialpower in African societies. In my ebook The Historical Struggles of AfricanWomen I go into more details about the important roles that women held inAfrican society and how slavery/colonialism altered that role and strippedwomen of their power, and often reduced women to sex objects for their slave masters. Incidents in theLife of a Slave Girl byHarriet Ann Jacobs is one of the best accounts of the psychical andpsychological aspects of the sexual abuse that African women faced on the slaveplantations. The depiction of women in hip-hop often reflects thislack of power. Women in rap music are often reduced to sexual objects that serve as status symbolsfor male rappers. Nelly’s song “Tip Drill” is one of the songs that reallybring to light the level to which women are reduced to sex objects in rapvideos. A scene from the music video for “Tip Drill”

Tosome extent we see this objectification of women in Tupac’s music, but whereTupac is unique from most rappers of his generation is that he also expressed asincere concern for women in his music. “Brenda’s Got a Baby” tells the storyof an uneducated 12 year old girl named Brenda who becomes pregnant. At onepoint Brenda considers abandoning the baby, but she decides to keep the child. Throughoutthe song Tupac also points out the lack of support that Brenda gets from herfamily. Brenda’s mother was never in her life and her father is a heroin addict. By the end of the song Brenda is forced tobecome a prostitute to provide for herself and her baby. By the end of the songBrenda is murdered. The most troubling aspect of this song is that it was basedon an actual story that Tupac read in the newspapers, in which a 12 year oldgirl gave birth to a baby which she abandoned in a trash can. “Mama’s Just aLittle Girl” is another song by Tupac that also deals with the topic of teenagepregnancy.

In“Baby Don’t Cry” Tupac offers advice and reassurance to women that have been victimsof rape. Tupac was also very troubled the fate of 15 year-old Latasha Harlins,who was  killed by a Korean store owner who thought that Harlins was trying torob him, when in fact she was just trying to pay for a drink that she was aboutto buy. The music video for “Keep Ya Head Up” includes a tribute to Latasha.Tupac also mentions her in songs such as “Thugz Mansion,” “I Wonder if HeavenGot a Ghetto,” “White Man’s World,” and “Hellrazor.”

Whenit comes to Tupac’s treatment of women in his music “Dear Mama” and “Keep YaHead Up” are easily Tupac’s two most famous songs. In “Dear Mama” Tupacexpresses his love and gratitude towards his mother, who raised Tupac and hissister as a single mother. Tupac recognizes the hardships that his motherendured in raising him and honors his mother’s struggles in lines such as “evenas a crack fiend, mama/you always was a black queen, mama” and “I finallyunderstand for a woman it ain’t easy to raise a man.”

“KeepYa Head Up” is Tupac’s tribute to struggling black women. Tupac raps: “I give aholler to my sisters on welfare Tupac cares, if don’t nobody else care.” Tupacalso calls on men to treat their women better:You know itmakes me unhappyWhen brothersmake babiesAnd leave ayoung mother to be a pappyAnd since we allcame from a womanGot our namefrom a woman And our gamefrom a womanI wonder why wetake from our women

“IGet Around” appeared on the same album as “Keep Ya Head Up.” Whereas“KeepYa Head Up” is meant to inspire and uplift black women, in “I Get Around” Tupacdepicts women as a sort of nuisance to him because now that he is a famousrapper with lots money he has women throwing themselves at him. “Keep Ya HeadUp” pays tribute to the struggling single black mother. In “I Get Around” Tupacpays “respect to those who break their neck to keep their hoes in check.” So onthe same album we get the depiction of women struggling to hold together theirfamily under poverty and we also get the depiction of women as being out ofcontrol “hoes” that need to be held in check by men.

Thereis nothing empowering or uplifting for women in “I Get Around.” The song is noteven empowering to Tupac’s male audience, as the song is essentially Tupacboasting about the women that he gets. In this song women are a sort of statussymbol that represent Tupac’s newfound fame as a rapper. The boasting in thissong is perhaps rooted in Tupac’s own past problems with women. Tupacnoted that before he was a famous rapper he would walk around a club lonely andwithout a date, but after becoming a rapper Tupac explained women would gocrazy about him. In “Same Song,” which was recorded when Tupac was a member ofthe group Digital Underground, Tupac raps:

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Dimensions of 2Pac: The Roots of his Activism

Dimensions of 2Pac: The Roots of his Activism
This is the first of a series of blog posts about rapper Tupac Shakur
 
The roots of the activism in Tupac’s music can be directly traced to the fact that his family members were political activists. His mother, Afeni Shakur, and his biological father were members of the Black Panther Party. Tupac’s stepfather Mutulu Shakur was a member of the Republic of New Afrika. Tupac’s step-aunt is Assata Shakur and his godfather was Geronimo Pratt.
 
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How Africa could feed the world - By Olusegun Obasanjo

How Africa could feed the world - By Olusegun Obasanjo

Images of starving children, epitomised in news coverage from Ethiopia in the 1980s, have given Africa a reputation for famine that does an injustice to the continent’s potential.

 

It’s true that a recent report by three U.N. agencies said nearly 239 million in Africa are hungry, a figure some 20 million higher than four years ago. And recent crises in the Horn of Africa and Sahel certainly highlight the desperate uncertainties of food supply for millions – malnutrition still cuts deep scars into progress on health and education.

 

But the Africa Progress Panel and many others believe that Africa has the potential not only to feed itself, but also to become a major food supplier for the rest of the world

 

Consider, for example, Africa’s agricultural land. According to an influential recent analysis, Africa has around 600 million hectares of uncultivated arable land, roughly 60 percent of the global total.

 

And on the land that is being used, outdated technologies and techniques mean productivity is low. African cereal yields, for example, are just over one-third of the developing world average and have barely increased in 30 years. One major issue is that as much as 80 percent of Africa’s agriculture still depends on rain not irrigation.

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The Ancient City Of Kano

The Ancient City Of Kano

his essay is taken from the writings of Ibrahim Ado-Kurawa (2015) Sarkin Kano Muhammad Sanusi II A Public Intellectual and Accomplished Technocrat (2014) ‘The History, Dynamics and Character of Kano: Brief History of Kano 999 to 2003′ in Bako, A. et al (ed) Issues on Nigerian Peoples and Culture Ahmadu Bello University Press, Zaria and (2010) Kano State 1967-2010 Research and Documentation Directorate Kano State.

Kano State of the Federal Republic of Nigeria lies between latitude 130N in the North and 110N in the South, and longitude 80W in the West and 100E in the East. Kano State consists of 44 local government areas: Ajingi, Albasu, Bagwai, Bebeji, Bichi, Bunkure, Dala, Dambatta, Dawakin Kudu, Dawakin Tofa, Doguwa, Fagge, Gabasawa, Garko, Garun Mallam, Gaya, Gezawa, Gwale, Gwarzo, Kabo, Karaye, Kibiya, Kiru, Kumbotso, Kura, Kunchi, Madobi, Makoda, Minjibir, Kano Municipal, Nassarawa, Rano, Rimin Gado, Rogo, Shanono, Sumaila, Takai, Tarauni, Tsanyawa, Tudun Wada, Tofa, Ungogo, Warawa and Wudil. The total land area of Kano State is 20,760sq kilometers with a population of 9,383,682.

Kano City has been the capital of Kasar Kano. It was at various times referred to as the capital of the Kano Kingdom, the Kano Emirate or Kano State, since the earliest recorded time. It is located on latitude 12.000N and longitude 8.300E within the semi-arid Sudan savannah zone of West Africa about 840 kilometers from the edge of the Sahara desert. Kano has a mean height of about 472.45m above sea level. Kano Megacity has expanded over the years and has become the second largest city in Nigeria with a population of over five million people. It is presently made up of ten local government areas: Municipal, Gwale, Dala, Tarauni, Nassarawa, Fagge, Ungogo, Kumbotso, Warawa, Gezawa, Minjibir, Dawakin Kudu and Dawakin Tofa. Kano’s most enduring legacy Gidan Rumfa (Emir’s Palace) the seat of Kano’s prestigious Sarauta institution (Kingship) built over five hundred years ago is located in the Municipal Local Government Area. It is the oldest continuous seat of authority in sub-Saharan Africa. The Kano State Government House is located in Tarauni Local Government Area.

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‘Negros’ as the Original Indians??

‘Negros’ as the Original Indians??

Proof in the Jesuit Letters

The Book ‘Africans and Native Americans’ by Jack Forbes paints a very different picture of history than what most of Us were taught about the origins of Black People in the Western Hemisphere. We were taught that Black People came from Africa as slaves that the Red Indian was the true Native American, and that White people took ‘Black’ slaves from Africa and stole the land of the Red Indians. This story is nothing but a giant fiction, a novel made up by white historians to deceive the masses about the original history and peoples of the Americas.

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AFRICA - THE NAME - THE ORIGIN - THE MEANING - THE TRUTH

AFRICA - THE NAME - THE ORIGIN - THE MEANING - THE TRUTH

Every Nation, landmass, and Continent, has names that have evolved over the centuries, all of the names you think "Africa" was called in the distant past are only local names used by a few tribes, nations, and only refer to small sections of the continent. There are multiple ancient african sources for the word AFRICA including the berber word "IFRI", and the berber word "AFER" which is the name of "BANU IFRAN" from Algeria and Tripolitania. Africa can also be derived from the Egyptian AF-RUI-KA, "to turn toward the opening of the KA". The KA is the energetic double of every person and "OPENING OF THE KA" refers to a WOMB or BIRTHPLACE. Africa would be, for the ancient Egyptians, "THE BIRTHPLACE", these and many other ancient sources including HIEROGLYPHS make reference to the tittle or designation AFRICAN. "The first word Afu carries the meaning of house. The second word Ra, is one of the names of the Divine Creator in Africa in general and Egypt in particular. The third word Ka carries the meaning of soul or spirit. When you put it all together you get the word, Afu-Ra-Ka. The meaning of Afu-Ra-Ka is the house for the soul or spirit of the Divine Creator. This word in this form refers to the land of the Divine Creator. The Africans looked at their land as belonging to and created by the Divine Creator. Afu-Ra-Kani, a word derived from Afu-Ra-Ka, also carries the meaning of house for the soul or spirit of the Divine Creator, but in reference to the human being, male in particular. The plural form is Afu-Ra-Kanu, which refers to all males as houses for the spirit or soul of the Divine Creator. Afu-Rait-Kaitnit is the female house for the soul or spirit of the Divine Creator. The plural form is Afu-Rait-Kaitnut, which refers to all females as houses for the soul or spirit of the Divine Creator. This is the philosophy of the Afu-Ra-Kans, (Africans). The Afu-Ra-Kans, (Africans), believed that all human beings were the carriers and houses for the soul and spirit of the Divine Creator." (This information comes from the book, The Destruction Of Black Civilization: Great Issues Of A Race, 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D. This book was written by our great ancestor and scholar, Chancellor Williams.) Africa was also called “Akebu-Lan” (mother of mankind) and “Garden of Eden.” This name was used by the numerous tribes and ancient nations including the Nubians, Numidians, Khart-Hadddans (Carthaginians), and people of Kush (Ethiopians). However we never had a single name for the entire continent, we had numerous localized names, but there is no name that was used for the entire continent before Africa. ======================= ALKEBULAN? IS ALKEBULAN THE ORIGINAL NAME OF AFRICA? NO, Alkebulan is just one of the many ancient local names of AFRICA. Among the many ancient names used to describe different areas of our land is Alkebu-lan, which means "MOTHER OF MAN", Alkebulan has also been interpreted as meaning "GARDEN OF EDEN". Alkebulan and Africa are two of the oldest INDIGENOUS names. The many names of our land were local and NEVER referred to the entire continent. ALKEBULAN was used by the Egyptians, Nubians, Numidians, Khart-Haddans (Carthagenians), and Ethiopians (Kush). Africa, the current misnomer adopted by almost everyone today, was adopted and used more widely and across many cultures to describe the continent likely because of the way it is easily translated into many indigenous languages. The ancient Greeks and Romans, and as result of the wide usage of the name Africa came over time to use Africa to describe the whole continent. ............................................ A FEW MORE EXAMPLES OF INDIGENOUS SOURCES FOR THE WORD "AFRICA" The AFARAK, also known as the AOURIGHA, were a Berber people who lived south of Carthage (North Africa). The terms AFARIK or AFRICA were used to denote the LAND OF THE AFARAK. The Phoenician root FARAQUA, which suggests a separation or in other words, diaspora. The same root is found in some African languages, like BAMBARA. In Sanskrit and Hindu, the root APARA or Africa denotes that which, in geographical terms comes "AFTER," or in other words the WEST OF INDIA. From the geographical position of India, the Asian country in which the East Africans established colonies, namely the DRAVIDIAN CULTURE, Africa is the western continent. Another school of thought states that the word Africa comes from two Phoenician terms, one of which means an ear of corn, which was a symbol of fertility in that region, and the other PHARIKIA, which means land of the fruit. Other local names used to descibe our land Africa: AOURIGHA, ETHIOPIA, CORPHYE, ORTEGIA, LIBYA, AFARIK, KEMIT, KUSH, NUBIA, OLYMPIA, GODONGWANA, HESPERIA, TA-MERRY or TA-MERE, OCEANIA. BOTTOM LINE, "AFRICA" HAS MANY INDIGENOUS SOURCES NAMES .............................................. QUESTION: WHY DO SOME NEGROES SAY AFRICA GOT IT'S NAME FROM PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO WHO WAS GIVEN THE ABDOMEN (NICKNAME) "AFRICANUS" AFTER HE DEFEATED THE GREAT GENERAL "HANNIBAL BARCA" AND THEN CALL THEMSELVES "ASIATIC" YET THE SAME NEGROES NEVER SAY "ASIA" GOT IT'S NAME FROM THE BROTHER OF SCIPIO, WHOM WAS REWARDED FOR HIS VICTORIES IN "ASIA" WITH THE ABDOMEN "SCIPIO ASIATICUS"? LUCIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO WHOM WAS BETTER KNOWN AS "SCIPIO ASIATICUS" WAS GIVEN THE ABDOMEN (NICKNAME) "ASIATICUS" BY THE ROMANS JUST LIKE HIS BROTHER WAS GIVEN A ABDOMEN (NICK NAME) "AFRICANUS" WHEN HE DEFEATED HANNIBAL BARCA. ANSWER: The word AFRICA is a indigenous name used by a dozen North and East African Tribes for thousands of years before the Roman republic was ever born, Rome got the name Africa from, guess who, "AFRICANS", so NO Africa is not named after any Romans. ............................................................... WAS AFRICA NAMED BY OR AFTER A ROMAN GENERAL CALLED SCIPIO AFRICANUS? Even if you do not know the many indigenous words and meanings which translate to AFRICA it should be obvious to you that Africa is not a European word, there are not European cities of towns called AFRICA, if Africa was a European word their would be other places named AFRICA. New Age Negroes will falsely tell you that AFRICA got it's name from the Romans, that is a LIE and I have proven this many times, the people spreading this LIE DO NOT KNOW HISTORY, and some of them DO KNOW THE TRUTH BUT CHOOSE TO SPREAD LIES. AFRICA IS NOT A EUROPEAN WORD, and is not named after the ROMAN who's name was CORNELIUS PUBLIUS CORNELIOUS SCIPIO. There are multiple ancient african sources for the word AFRICA including the berber word "IFRI", and the berber word "AFER" which is the name of "BANU IFRAN" from Algeria and Tripolitania. Africa can also be derived from the Egyptian AF-RUI-KA, "to turn toward the opening of the KA". The KA is the energetic double of every person and "OPENING OF THE KA" refers to a WOMB or BIRTHPLACE. Africa would be, for the ancient Egyptians, "THE BIRTHPLACE", these and many other ancient sources including HIEROGLYPHS make reference to the tittle or designation AFRICAN. The Roman General who defeated HANNIBAL was named "PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO", he was best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle of the SECOND PUNIC WAR (218 - 202 BC) AT ZAMA, a feat that earned him the AGNOMEN (TITTLE) or NICKNAME "AFRICANUS", Scipio was also called by the nickname "THE ROMAN HANNIBAL". He was called "AFRICANUS" because he defeated the greatest AFRICAN General of all time. ROME DID NOT CREATE THE NAME AFRICA, AND ANYONE WHO CLAIMS THEY DID IS MISTAKENLY or PURPOSELY A LIAR A PHONY A FRAUD. BOTTOM LINE : AFRICA IS NOT NAMED AFTER ANY ROMANS, THE ROMANS NAMED THEMSELVES AFTER US. ==================== AFRICANUS IS A "AGNOMEN" - WHAT IS A "AGNOMEN"? To be clear Publius Cornelius Scipio was given a "AGNOMEN" for defeating a General named HANNIBAL BARCA. The AGNOMEN given to Publius Cornelius was "AFRICANUS". Publius Cornelius Scipio was given the TITTLE, "AFRICANUS". Many thousands of Romans and Africans were given the AGNOMEN "AFRICANUS". Roman naming practices varied greatly over the centuries between the founding of Rome to the early Middle Ages. However, the practice of the elite during the period between the mid-Republic and the early Empire has come to be seen as the classical Roman naming convention. This is likely to be because this period provides good evidence of naming practices of the best documented class in the best documented Roman period. By the end of the Republican era, a name for an aristocratic male citizen comprised three parts (tria nomina): praenomen (given name), nomen (or nomen gentile or simply gentilicium, being the name of the gens or clan) and cognomen (name of a family line within the gens). Sometimes a second or third cognomen, called AGNOMEN, was added. The nomen, and later, cognomen were virtually always hereditary. During the Imperial period, the number and options for elements within a name considerably increased. The naming conventions for the later period grew out of a desire to indicate status, connections and ancestry, in a way that was much more wide-ranging than could be shown by the tria nomina. After the cognomen became hereditary and lost its function as a nickname, a second nickname, or AGNOMEN, was appended to the name after birth—usually not immediately—to signify some personal characteristic or accomplishment. A common AGNOMEN was Pius, for someone who displayed virtues like honesty, reverence to the gods, or devotion to family and state. Superbus ("Proud") and Pulcher ("Handsome") were also examples of AGNOMINA. Unlike the nomen and cognomen, an AGNOMEN was usually not inherited unless the son also had the same attribute or did the same deeds, although some victory AGNOMINA like Augustus ("Majestic") and Germanicus ("the German Conqueror)") and of course Scipio Africanus ( the conquorer of Africa) eventually became handed down as additional cognomina. An AGNOMEN (plural: AGNOMINA], in the Roman naming convention, was a nickname, just as the cognomen was initially. However, the cognomina eventually became family names, so AGNOMINA were needed to distinguish between similarly named persons. However, as the AGNOMEN was an additional and optional component in a Roman name, not all Romans had an AGNOMEN. Pseudo-Probus uses the hero of the Punic Wars, Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, as an example: “ propria hominum nomina in quattuor species dividuntur, praenomen nomen cognomen agnomen: praenomen, ut puta Publius, nomen Cornelius, cognomen Scipio, agnomen Africanus. " (Men's personal names are of four types, praenomen, nomen, cognomen and agnomen: praenomen for instance Publius, nomen Cornelius, cognomen Scipio and agnomen Africanus.) Marius Victorinus further elucidates: “ I am agnomen extrinsecus venit, et venit tribus modis, aut ex animo aut ex corpore aut ex fortuna: ex animo, sicut Superbus et Pius, ex corpore, sicut Crassus et Pulcher, ex fortuna, sicut Africanus et Creticus. " [Now the agnomen comes from outside, and in three styles, from personality or physique or achievements: From personality, such as Superbus ["Haughty"] and Pius [displaying the Roman syndrome of virtues including honesty, reverence to the gods, devotion to family and state, etc.], from physique, such as Crassus ["Fatty"] and Pulcher ["Handsome"], or from achievements, such as Africanus and Creticus [from their victories in Africa and on Crete]. "Africanus", "Creticus" and the likes are also known as victory titles. For example, Gaius Marcius Coriolanus earned his from the capture of Corioli. SO AGAIN TO BE CLEAR SCIPIO IS NOT THE SOURCE OF THE WORD AFRICA, AFRICANUS IS HIS "VICTORY NAME", BECAUSE HE WON A WAR AGAINST GENERAL HANNIBAL BARCA IN AFRICA. SUMMARY: The Roman General who defeated HANNIBAL was named "PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO", he was best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle of the SECOND PUNIC WAR (218 - 202 BC) AT ZAMA, a feat that earned him the AGNOMEN (TITTLE) or NICKNAME "AFRICANUS", Scipio was also called by the nickname "THE ROMAN HANNIBAL". He was called AFRICANUS, because he beat the greatest African General of all time. Via Maurice Milles Mansa

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Some Little Know Black History Facts

Some Little Know Black History Facts





The Popular Image of Rastafarians and Bob Marley
The Black African Crisis in the Age of a Black President
Kingdoms and Civilizations of Afric
The Historical Struggle of African Womanhood
African People in the Bible: An Essay
Amenhotep III

The Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep III started the first form of mass communication through the use of stone scarabs. Amenhotep would have news of his latest achievements carved into these stones and these stones would be carried throughout the empire to inform the population of Amenhotep’s achievements.

 

 

There are actually more pyramids located in Nubian than in Egypt.

 

 

The University of Timbuktu (located in present day Mali) is one of the oldest universities in the world. According to historian Robin Walker, there are over 700,000 surviving manuscripts from the university, which are on different subjects such as medicine, history, theology, and geography.

 

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African American Historical Personalities: Gallant Warriors for Freedom and Equality

African American Historical Personalities: Gallant Warriors for Freedom and Equality

IN THEIR OWN WORDS AND WRITING

There is a rich history of African American people that needs to be re-told and paid close attention-to. There have been and there are still men and women who are willing to put their life and fortune on the line just to see their people acquire complete freedom and equality so long denied them in the United States of America. These men and women have existed during the era of American Chattel Slavery and, through the times of the Black Codes, Jim Crow and the Civil Rights Movements. These men and women have used their own ingenuity and tactics to try and deflect and change the situation of their people under seriously trying circumstances and reality. Historians have justified this absence of slave voices in the history of slavery and the American people by insisting that , after all, the slaves left no record, accomplished little that was "noteworthy," and they did not have much history.

They somehow, conveniently left-out the laws and the legal and the draconian edicts and processes, as were applied to the people of African ancestry, which were, in many ways, an expression of social control. We are going to look at some of these people and what they had to do to uplift their enslaved people from the House of Bondage. This re-writing of some of the history of African American Slaves has been carried-out in this article because the subject been treated by most historians as a specialized and exotic entity, and not as a central focus of the study of the development of American people.

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Shaka the Zulu King and Military Genius

Shaka the Zulu King and Military Genius

Life's Hard Knocks

One of the most fascinating leaders of early Africa was Shaka, born in 1786 and died in 1828. Some people have called him a conqueror and despot. His story was that of being brought-up the hard way. His mother Nandi, who was seduced by a chieftain called Senzangakhona, was broiled in scandal about their love affair. When the chief of Elangeni, closely related to the Zulu clan, died, he left one his children, a strong-willed Nandi orphaned, caught the eye of Senzangakhona. They could not get married because Senzangakhona's mother was from the Elangani people, and he already had two wives. Nonetheless, as a chieftain, he had no qualms flirting and flaunting the rule of exogamy respected among the clans. Shaka's father and mother were blood relatives, and their relationship was frowned-upon by both clans. When Nandi became pregnant, the clan was feeling humiliated because they had expected that the chief would show better judgement. When Shaka's mother asked the chief Senzangakhona to send for her, the elders sent back a word that this was not a case of pregnancy but that her child was an 'ishaka' (a convenient intestinal beetle on whom menstrual irregularities were usually blamed) The chief sent fro her and made her his third wife around 1787. The presence of Nandi created a lot of friction around the kraal.

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Origins Of The Name Africa

Origins Of The Name Africa
"The name 'Africa' comes from the Afar people, who lived (and live), at the southern end of the Red Sea." ~Professor Martin Bernal, author of Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization The Kamites (ancient Egyptians) term, 'Af-Rui-Ka,' meaning “Place of Beginnings.” Canaanites (the Greeks called them Phoenicians) term, 'Afar' means, 'Dust.' The Canaanites also used the term, 'Afryqah' which denoted a 'Colony,' referring to, Carthage (in Africa), the new city, being a colony of the Canaanites. An Arabic term, 'Ifriqiya,' is often assumed to come from the Roman, though some argue that the Latin term came from the Arabic. Afar: Afar is the name that people of the Northeast use themselves.   In the Amhara language they are called Adal; Arabs call them Danakil (Dankali); Oromo refer to them as Adali and neighboring Somali groups use the term Odali. In Tigrayan they are the Teltal. Afar is a more or less homogenous ethnic group. There are many Afar groups, but all consider themselves Afars. All groups speak the Afar language known as Afar-Af, except for the Irob group of the North, who speak Saho. Other groups are the Ankala, the Adhali and the Able (near Rarahita), the Uluhto, Ayrolasso, and Asabbakari, the Modhito (near Awsa), the Dammohoyta, and the Seka noblemen. Other sources: Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture 3-volume set (pages 12-13), by Carole Elizabeth Boyce Davies Outlines of lectures on ancient history (originally published in 1850), by Charles John Abraham  ==================  Publius Cornelius Scipio (at birth), was later called, Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus I, was a Roman general and and statesman of the Roman Republic. His father's name was, Publius Cornelius Scipio. One of his children's name was, Cornelia Scipionis Africana. He was best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle of the Second Punic War at Zama, a feat that earned him the agnomen 'Africanus,' the nickname "the Roman Hannibal." The term Africanus was indigenous to Africa and was passed down by the Berber people.  Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus I, was also a Roman general and statesman. He was the son of Publius Cornelius Scipio and the older brother of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus I. The names Africanus and Asiaticus were given in honor of military victories. *The myth is that the term Africa, came from the Romans, however they are only responsible for the spread of the word usage which was applied to the entire land mass. (Pictured: Afar women, during a ceremony, near the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden in Africa.) Source: Dre Jordan
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PRESIDENT ROBERT MUGABE, THE "FATHER" OF INDIGENIZATION,THE TRUE AND ONLY AFRICAN ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT.

PRESIDENT ROBERT MUGABE, THE "FATHER" OF INDIGENIZATION,THE TRUE AND ONLY AFRICAN ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT.

By Nimba Mhaat, International Economics and Politics Analyst. NewsAgency RNA PHK PRESS correspondent for Africa. Zimbabwe is today the only liberated and sovereign Black African nation due to this revolutionary policy of indigenization put in place by this great African leader: His Excellency Robert Mugabe. Don’t even say South Africa or Nigeria. They are all the pawns of the West. We are seizing the opportunity here to salute the victory of President Mugabe and the ZANU-PF at the presidential election over the stooge so-called “party” of MDC,the West’s local Black puppets. Despite, the US $2.7 billion that the European Union and US have financed their 3,500 NGOs,pro-MDC without forgetting the pirate radio stations based in Europe and America to intensively broadcast propaganda into Zimbabwe against President Mugabe and the ZANU-PF, the people of Zimbabwe know who is for their best interest and this is why the People’s Manifesto of ZANU-PF went home dry and clean. President Mugabe has proven himself and to the rest of the world that he is the man with the interest of the African people in Zimbabwe and not for the West. As the founder of this nation, his idea and values are very well understood by the Zimbabweans. President Mugabe’s presidential victory is a resounding victory for the future of the African continent. His Zimbabwe’s Indigenisation Program is the real model for African economical decolonization under the diktat of the West. Hopefully many African politicians will look to Zimbabwe as a point of true reference to break away from the perverted capitalism or the gluttoism of the West. The biggest insult on African people is to see the audacity for one country in particular the Western countries to come into any African country and literally “buy” or take by force the lands, assets which for many African people represent their key security and survival elements for the inhabitants. And going through this we have as African people ask ourselves these questions:What gives the right to the European people to grab lands in Africa? Why the West is negatively acting toward the land reform or the indigenization process of the government of President Robert Mugabe if it was the only country in the world and the first one to implement this type of policy? Did the US, China, South Korea and many others countries around the world never protect their domestic, core reliance or national advantages by exempting them from any foreign ownership? Why is that an African country such as Zimbabwe for almost 100 years,yes you hear me,I said for a lasting 100 years,has seen its African people being discriminated against any socially, extrajudicially, politically and economically activities on their ancestral lands by aliens who came from Europe, are now taking back their proprieties and it become such a big fuzz? Oooh, I see. Ah,because they are “Blacks”. That is why. This is exactly what the Caucasian/”White” people mind operate. For them, even being the last human beings to appear on the face of the earth, they feel themselves “superior” to anybody and especially the African people who are by no doubt the first human beings on earth and the fathers and mothers of civilization. For 100 years ago, the European people through the British South Africa Company had owned every piece of Zimbabwe. From the 1890s, this part of Africa called Zimbabwe was under this White supremacist entity in which the African people were completely dispossessed from their ancestral land by the White people. Their land and natural resources were taken violently and divided among European invaders so-called settlers. Imagine, a group of foreigners coming to your land and loath you and your land, culture, way of life and make you subjects and at the same time make your resources their assets as solely belonging to them. Consequently, it took the determination of African people under the leadership of President Robert Mugabe to pick up arms and to resist the massive exploitative evil colonial system and exclusive exploitation of their ancestral resources, their God-given resources looted by the alien minority called Rhodesian white people. It took 10 years of heroic armed struggle for Mugabe and his comrades of ZANLA and ZIPRA the military wings of the two political parties ZANU and ZAPU to liberate Zimbabwe from the Aliens/ European/”White” people. It was in 1987 that these heroic parties formed the People’s Manifesto of ZANU-PF. For 30 years of constructive leadership, the essence of ZANU-PF’s ideology is to economically empower the African people of Zimbabwe through the Indigenisation programme by enabling them to fully own their country’s God-given natural and human resources and the exclusively means of production to create by unlocking the value from those immense resources. This is the reason we dearly love president Robert Mugabe with this revolutionary program: the INDIGENISATION and what I call myself the AFRICANISATION. The indigenization is the conducive environment that recognizes Zimbabwe’s total ownership of all its natural resources that clearly demonstrates the expression of its national sovereignty. And nobody can take away from them. Yes, indigenization is the real freedom and that has be expanded through the entire African continent which according to World Bank there is still an estimation of 65% of Africa’s best arable land is still controlled by White/Alien settlers or Western companies so-called multinational corporations under the fabrication term of “investors” . The World Bank has also estimated that there is as much as 70% of the net wealth in Africa is owned by non-African people. On so many levels, Africa is being over-looted by the West and the Western people are the first ones to say that “Africa is under-developed”. The African people must stop it because Africa is for African people. Seriously, I cannot see one ounce of sense in this insanity where we the African people are losing over our own resources and only a sliver of “White”/European so-called elites with their Negro nincompoops or traitors “winning” in these lame term of “investors” or “globalism” escapades. Really, who in blue blazes would even think that the way the What could possibly go wrong with President Mugabe with his program of indigenization to better the lives of its citizens by giving them all the exclusive right to full possess and own their resources?You have to be a nut if you are an African person and even another race to think that the indigenization programme of the ZANU-PF and President Mugabe is bad for the Zimbabwean people. So in a way, everyone in a community is a stakeholder in that endeavor and has investment there. The return should be stable and attractive domestic opportunities, the Zimbabweans and Africans in large. The establishment of the Harare Stock Exchange ( HSE ) which will be created under a platform called IndegeNex with the solely and exclusive participation of African-Zimbabwean people and 100% indigenously/Africaneously owned companies to empower the people is very encouraging programme. The mining and extraction of precious resources, like oil, natural gas, gold, zinc, and platinum, diamond, ore, cobalt must be exclusively under the control of the African people ,but not to go and enrich the Western corporations. We can’t allow our resources being shipped to the West and in return the Western companies sell to us with high premium. We the African people must not only control its raw materials but also by emphasizing on the building manufacturing capacity by turning our natural resources to finished goods. African people must indigenize/ africanise their economies at all level. We suppose to be the number 1 world power because we possess 90% of all the world natural precious resources.

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THE LOOTING OF AFRIKA BY THE WEST FROM SLAVERY VIA COLONIZATION UNTIL TODAY - Nimba Tiannimbo Mhaat

THE LOOTING OF AFRIKA BY THE WEST FROM SLAVERY VIA COLONIZATION UNTIL TODAY - Nimba Tiannimbo Mhaat

THE LOOTING OF AFRIKA BY THE WEST FROM SLAVERY VIA COLONIZATION UNTIL TODAY.

By Nimba Tiannimbo Mhaat, International Trade, Economics, and Politics Analyst.

This image here really speaks volume. We see here a turn over oil-loaded truck and the cars are around it and pumping the oil/fuel out of this truck. That’s exactly the situation Africa and African people are facing with the rest of the world in particular the Western world. Africa for close to 600 years has been the meat and drink of the West. To justify their demoniac action and to try at the best to hide their evil nature, the West has always developed thesis based upon lie,propaganda,illusion by reinforcing their racist perceptions of “superiority” and without them( the Westerners),the African people will be living in the “darkness”. But the reality is that Africa is the epicenter of the world. The West needs more Africa than Africa needs the world.

Curiously the people who are pretending that African people need them more,are the ones who have always made the move toward Africa. One troublesome fact is that the West in its strategy to invade Africa, has been using one-dimensional view of negatively portraying Africa with racist perceptions such as corrupt-governments which in reality they are the main agents of the corruption,racist perception HIV epidemic in African/”Black” people which in reality they( Westerners) are the manufacturers of these gems in the lab against us .Another racist perception of the Western world toward Africa are famine and drought ravaging a huge area of Africa which in reality the West is behind the confiscation of vast piece of rich lands to cultivate foods that will be for the most part exported to Europe,Asia and Middle region. Why is that Africa the supposedly “cursed”, “poor” continent has been and still is the “lust”, longing for the West? What the Western countries: US,European Union and others are coming to seek in Africa at the current days? Is that for the pleasure to wander through Africa and “save” the African people from famine, diseases? And if African/ “ Black” people were so unhealthy, full of diseases, why the “White” people need them as their slaves to go work for nothing in the “new world” so-called “ America” after Christopher Colombus “discovered “ it?

The reality is the West by nature evil has been living off Africa and continue to do so with the collaboration of some low-class African people. The West has “strategic” business and defense interests in the African’s vast mineral deposit countries such as Congo,Guinea-Conakry,Zimbabwe by keeping their attack-dogs( their puppets) in the region at the exception of Zimbabwe to facilitate the swallowing of these minerals. The cocoa of Cote d'Ivoire for the most part and Ghana is feeding the Western countries chocolate and candy industry and nothing for the African people. The uranium of Niger,and Namibia is feeding the nuclear power of the West. The diamonds of Namibia,Congo,Cote d'ivoire,Sierra Leone,etc are exploited by DeBeers for these Western jewelry companies coffers. The Aluminium of Guinea-Conakry is feeding the car,airplane industries of the West,etc... The Western countries by the name of “investment”/ “investor” signed some lopsided contracts with their pawn African governments in place where for the most part these Western multinational corporations are the ones which dictate the terms of “trade agreements” . When some African governments that have the courage to engage in a win-win deals,these western companies always try to outmaneuver these governments in the negotiations just to have the big share from our vast resources that our ancestors left us. Africa is the richest land on earth. Africa possesses 95% of the whole mineral resources. Africa possesses the vast majority of rich soils where 100% of all the flora and fauna are located. Everything you name it, Africa has it and the whole world want everything in Africa.Why the West, this “civilized” , “developed” region,to maintain its looting,neo-colonialism habits,its pursue of acquisition of materials,has to once again gut Africa? The African people must understand that the “poverty” that they are in and the West is talking about is not accidental,but rather designed by the same people: European people.

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