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The Himba ethnic group have kept their ethnic individuality and culture in the seclusion of Kaokoland. This ancient tribe of semi-nomadic pastoralists live in the Kunene region of northern Namibia. There are between 20,000 and 50,000 Himba people.
The friendly and extraordinary Himba people are closely related to the Herero people but they have resisted change and preserved their unique cultural heritage. About 240,000 Herero people live in Namibia, Botswana and Angola. They belong to the Bantu group of African nations.
The Himba and Herero speak the same language. The Himba are a pastoral people. They predominantly breed cattle and goats and lead a nomadic life.Depending on the time of year, they move with their herds to different watering places. Milking of animals as well as other jobs like bringing water to the village and building homes is done by women.
The Himbas were impoverished by Nama cattle raiders in the middle of 1800's and then forced to be hunter-gatherers. Because of these events they were called the Tjimba, derived form the word meaning aardvark, the animal that digs for its food. Many Himbas fled to Angola where they were called Ovahimba, meaning 'beggars'. They left with their leader called Vita (''war''). After World War 1 he resettled his people in Kaokoland. Since these events the Himbas were living their nomadic pastoralist lives. But now more and more they have to reconcile traditional ways with European values.
One of most interesting rituals of these people is that of the ritual fire, the ''okoruwo''. The fire provides contact between the living and the dead, which is necessary for harmonious living and keeping the ancestors happy. It is kept alive until the death of the headman. When this happens, his hut and the fire is destroyed. His family dance in mourning throughout the night. Before his burial everyone says to him: "Karepo nawa" (''keep well''). Later a fresh mopane tree is lit from the embers of the old fire. Women raise children too. There is a situation that one woman in the community gets a task of raising children. So, she raises children of her own and those of other women in the community. Men on the other side are more involved in political and legal matters.
Clothes, hairstyle and jewellery are all of particular significance to the Himba and are part of their tradition and culture. Even newborn babies are adorned with pearl necklaces. When the children are a little older, bangles made of beaten copper and shells are added. The proud Himba women take several hours for beauty care every morning. The entire body is rubbed with a cream, which consists of rancid butterfat and ochre powder. "It has to be said that Himba women do not wear lot of clothes. To somehow protect themselves from the sun they make a paste of butter fat, ochre, and herbs which they later put on their skin. That is why their skin is of reddish colour. The Himba believe that this colour is beautiful. It also has symbolic meaning as it unites the red colour of earth and blood which is the symbol of life. The hairstyle worn by Himba women is also quite unique. The hair is braided ("weaved") and covered with the special ochre mixuture called "otjize". Before reaching the puberty girls have only two hair braids. After the puberty they are allowed to make more of them. Single Himba men have only one braid backwards from the crown of the head. When they get married keep their hair tied in the shape of a turban."
Himba women have a rather interesting way to make them smell nice. How do they do it? They slowly burn certain aromatic plants and resins and use the smoke created to perfume and clean themselves. The Himba wear lot of leather jewelry. They often combine it with shells. Western style of fashion appears too but only on men. Both men and women walk topless. They wear skirts or loincloths made of animal skin. Adult women wear beaded anklets. They are used to protect them from snake bites.

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Muhammad: a Life in Math, Magic, and Religion- Bibi Drum, Joy Winstead


Have you ever wondered how mathematics, magic, and religion are all connected?  Look no further than the work of Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Fullani al-Kishnawi, of Katsina (now Nigeria).  Although not much is known about Muhammad’s life, what we do have are his quotes and written words that reveal to us what type of person and mathematician he became.  We also know what type of math Muhammad worked on through the reading of Africa Counts. 


There is still debate as to what year Muhammad was born, however, we do know that his time was spent creating a new way to develop magic squares and completing the five pillars of Islam.  His multi talents as an astronomer, mathematician, mystic, and astrologer helped him during his prolific career.  As a member of the Fulani people, he was one of the first groups to be converted to Islam.  The Fulani people have a history as nomadic herders and traders; they also have made an impact on politics and economics throughout West Africa.  Additionally, the Fulani people are very independent and competitive.  They have used Islam as well as their competitive spirit to acquisition new lands around present day Nigeria.  


 Because of Muhammad’s faith, he spent a large portion of his life in the Middle East completing his duties as a devoted Muslim.  It is because of this devotion to Islam, that he is recorded as saying, “work in secret and privacy.  The letters are in God’s safekeeping. God’s power is in his names and his secrets, and if you enter his treasury you are in God’s privacy, and you should not spread God’s secrets indiscriminately.”  This quote from Muhammad clearly symbolizes the first pillar of Islam by stating that any inspiration that is given to you by God, stays between you and God until another is found worthy of this inspiration.  This leads us to the conclusion that Muhammad worked independently and led his students to do the same.  After completing the fifth pillar of Islam, which is the pilgrimage to Mecca, Muhammad traveled to Egypt.  While there, in 1732, he wrote a manuscript in Arabic about how to complete magic squares of up to an order of eleven.  Unfortunately, Muhammad ibn Muhammad died in Cairo in 1741 before returning to Katsina.



Does it bother you when you believe you have mastered a concept only to discover you have not even come close?  Do not worry because some things are not always the way they appear.  In the words of Muhammad, “Do not give up, for that is ignorance and not according to the rules of this art.  Those who know the arts of war and killing cannot imagine the agony and pain of a practitioner of this honorable science.  Like the lover, you cannot hope to achieve success without infinite perseverance.”  This quote describes the pain and suffering of someone who does not live up to his full potential by giving up.  Muhammad’s statement reveals to us the quality of his work as a mathematician.  He was not only devoted to the art of mathematics, but Muhammad wanted his students to understand and join him in God’s privacy.  This could not be achieved without time and energy, devotion, and practice.  Without a doubt, giving up is not an option. 


Curious as to what this has to do with math, magic, and religion?  The answer goes back centuries to a divine turtle  Lo Shu in ancient China.  On the back of this divine turtle, appeared this configuration of numbers:
















Notice anything magical about this square?  Look closely and you will find that all rows, all columns, and the two main diagonals sum to fifteen. This arrangement of numbers in which the columns, rows, and main diagonals sum to the same number is known as magical squares.  For instance, the row consisting of four plus nine plus two is equal to the column of four plus three plus eight, which is equal to the diagonal of two plus five plus eight.  All of these sums are equal to fifteen.  The mysterious number fifteen is known as the magical constant. Muhammad’s work in the mathematical arts consisted of developing a system to come up with higher order magical squares.  The order of a magic square is found by counting the number of rows and columns.  For example, the magic square that appeared on the divine turtle Lo Shu, above is of order three.  All magic squares have an odd order.  The odd order is necessary because an even order square does not comply with every property of a magic square.  For example, one can have an even order in which the columns and rows add to the same.  However, the diagonals of the square will not sum to the same magical constant.  The numbers will repeat themselves, and in a true magical square the numbers are used only once.  The numbers used in a magic square can be found by multiplying the number of rows by the number of columns.  This is also the same as squaring the order, which is found by counting the number of rows or columns.  For instance, if there is a three by three magic square, you will use numbers one through nine.



Muhammad came up with a formula to find the magical constant, the number that is the sum of the rows, columns, and diagonals and a formula to find the middle square.   The formula for finding the magical constant is n(n^2 + 1)/2, where n is equal to the order of the magic square.  The second formula that Muhammad developed was


(n^2 + 1)/2.  Once again, n is the order of the square and in this formula we can derive the middle number.


             Muhammad’s work on magic squares was a beginning to group theory.  By group we mean that a set of elements is closed, associative, contains an identity, and contains inverses for each element.  Muhammad noticed that you could perform certain operations such as reflection about an axis or rotations of up to any degree and not change the properties of the square.  This meant that out of one simple square one could now generate a finite number of magic squares and the properties would still hold true.  For example, the following magic squares are the same square as above reflected about the x-axis and rotated ninety degrees.












This square is rotated about the














This square is rotated about an


Ninety-degree angle.





Muhammad proved that combinations of these two reflections are the dihedral group.  In other words these two reflections generate the rest of the group. In this case generate means that all combinations of these two reflections produce a finite number of elements.  There are eight distant elements in this group.  They include the identity and its inverse and the inverse of every other element.  This group is also associative and is closed under the compositions.  Only the square position is reflected, not the numbers.  This is so you do not end-up with an E for a three.


Although Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Fullani al-Kishnawi was not a minority in either race or religion in the western part of Africa, he was considered a minority because of his career as a mathematician.  Also in the mathematical world he was one of the few who were not Anglo-Saxon or Christian.    Ideas that included people of African decent could not do mathematical problems, and were intellectually inferior kept on in the minds of Anglo-Saxons until recently.   Despite this Muhammad never once gave up.  He persevered through it all, never giving in to the pressures of being a minority in both race and religion.  Muhammad showed the people of the time as well as today that no matter what race, ethnicity, or religion, you should not let this stand in the way  of what you want to do with your life.  If Muhammad had let the issues of multiculturalism get in the way he would have never developed the mathematical formulas and concepts of group theory that are still used hundreds of years later.

Bibi Drum

Joy Winstead

         February 20, 2001


Sourced from




Zaslavsky, Claudia.  Africa Counts: Number and Pattern in African Culture.


            Boston Massachusetts: Prindle, Weber & Schmidt, Inc, 1975




Gerdes, Paulus. “On Mathematics in the History of Sub-Saharan Africa.” 


                        Historia Mathematica. Volumn 21(1994) 345-376




“Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Fullani al-Kishnawi” Online.  Internet.  10 Jan.           


2001.   Available:  http//






“Art & Life in Africa”  Online.  Internet.  15 Feb. 2001.  Available:  http//www.uio







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Ancient 'paint factory' unearthed - BBC

The kits used by humans 100,000 years ago to make paint have been found at the famous archaeological site of Blombos Cave in South Africa.

The hoard includes red and yellow pigments, shell containers, and the grinding cobbles and bone spatulas to work up a paste - everything an ancient artist might need in their workshop.

This extraordinary discovery is reported in the journal Science.

It is proof, say researchers, of our early ancestors' complexity of thought.

"This is significant because it is pushing back the boundaries of our understanding of when Homo sapiens - people like us - first became modern," said Prof Christopher Henshilwood from the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.

"These finds indicate that humans were certainly thinking in a modern way, in a way that is cognitively advanced, at least 100,000 years ago," he told BBC News.

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Prof Henshilwood shows what was found and how the tools were used
Blombos Cave on the southern Cape Coast, 300km east of Cape Town, has been giving up remarkable archaeological treasures for more than 20 years.

Scientists have been scraping down through its sandy sediments to find all manner of artefacts left by the Middle Stone Age people who occupied the limestone cavity.

In 2002, researchers described 70,000-year-old blocks of ochre. This soft stone contains iron oxides that can be used as a pigment, or colouring agent.


Removal of one of the tool kits from the sediment The toolkits were removed from the Blombos sediment in 2008
But apart from some engravings on the blocks, there was little hard evidence to determine the precise purpose of the Blombos ochre. The new items seem to have had a much more obvious use - as the equipment to process paints.

The finds include abalone shells with ochre residues inside. There are tools made of quartzite that were presumably employed to hammer and grind ochre into a powder in the shells. And there is evidence that charcoal and oil from seal bones were being added to the mix. It seems bone implements were also being used to turn and lift the paint pastes.

All these artefacts were found together, almost as if someone had put them down intending to retrieve them at a later time, but then never coming back. Sands blown in through the cave entrance subsequently buried the kits and locked them away until they were excavated in 2008.

In the intervening three years, the finds have been subjected to a series of tests and assessments.

Ochre can have non-artistic applications such as an additive in glues, but co-researcher Francesco d'Errico from the University of Bordeaux says the analysis of the residues in the shells points strongly to the production of paints.

Francesco d’Errico at the microscope
Francesco d'Errico examining the components of the toolkits under a microscope
"The absence of a resin or a wax suggests the ochre was not used to make a glue or a mastic. We think it may have been used to make a paint or a design," he explained.

Prof Henshilwood added: "It's possible the paint was used to paint bodies, human skin. It could have been used to paint designs on leather or other objects. It could have been used for paintings on walls, although the surfaces of southern African caves are not ideal for the long-term preservation of rock art."

The mere fact though that paints are being manufactured in a systematic way is indicative of a level of advanced thinking.

It would have required a high degree of planning to bring together all of the elements of the kits; and if art really was the purpose, it suggests the cave dwellers of Blombos were capable of symbolic thought - the ability to let one thing represent another in the mind.

This ability has been posited as the giant leap in human evolution that set our species apart from the rest of the animal world.

Understanding when and where this behaviour first emerged is a key quest for scientists studying human origins.

Until now, arguably the earliest examples of conceptual thinking were the pieces of shell jewellery discovered at Skhul Cave in Israel and from Oued Djebbana in Algeria.


Blombos Cave is an archaeological site with significant information about the behaviour of our ancestors

Ochre blocks
The Blombos ochre blocks announced by scientists in 2002 had etchings on them. These artefacts have been dated to 90,000-100,000 years ago. The Blombos paint kits now sit alongside these other finds.

Prof Chris Stringer from London's Natural History Museum commented: "Twenty or 30 years ago, there was a view that Europe was really the place where all the big action was taking place - wonderful painted caves 30,000-35,000 years ago, and people decorating their bodies.

"We now know that this behaviour goes back far further in Africa; it goes back to 100,000 years, perhaps even more than 100,000 years.

"People were starting to express social identity in completely new ways. And there is a view that this behaviour is linked with complex language. So, it may indicate these people were communicating in a fully modern way," he told BBC News.

Source BBC

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History of Timbuktu - A Multicultural African Legacy

Most people think of Timbuktu as the remotest place on earth. Others even think of Timbuktu as being a legend or place which existed only in people’s imagination. Timbuktu is located in the present day Republic of Mali at the edge of the Sahara desert.


Timbuktu was founded by the Tuareg Imashagan or Kel Tamasheq in the 11th century. The Kel Tamasheq roamed the desert during the rainy season in search of grazing lands for their herds and camels. During the dry season, however, they camped a few miles from the Niger river in search of water and grass for their live stock.


Whenever the desert becomes green, the Turareg will leave their heavy goods with an old Tamasheq women called Tin Abutut who shortly thereafter became a warehouse or a depot for commercial goods transiting from the desert. The city of Timbuktu has taken its name from this famous black lady.


The historic town of Timbuktu is located at the precise point where the Niger flows northward into the southern edge of the Sahara desert. As a result of its unique geographical position, Timbuktu has been a natural meeting point of Songhai, Wangara, Fulani, Tuareg and Arabs. According to the inhabitants of Timbuktu, gold came from the south, the salt from the north and Divine knowledge from Timbuktu. Timbuktu is also the cross-road where the camel met the canoe. It is to this privilege position that the city owes much of its historical dynamism. From the 11th century and onward, Timbuktu became an important port where goods from West Africa and North Africa were traded. Goods coming the Mediterranean shores and salt were traded in Timbuktu for gold.

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The Egyptian Mystical Rites


The Egyptian Mystical Rites

Alexander the Great was 'converted' by it.. and spent the rest of his short but eventful life trying to fit his Macedonian heritage into Egypt's magical power. Julius Cesear was won-over not only by Cleopatra but the Egypt over which she was Queen.. as was Marc Anthony, after him. Napoleon was mesmerized by it; and ordered his army to survey and catalog all of the ancient wonders they found in Egypt's mysterious sands. From Rome to Paris, London and Washington DC Egyptian obelisks have been raised over the great cities of the world, in mute testimony to the magical spell of Egypt.

I was 'spell-bound' by it too, from the time I first saw pictures of the ancient relics of Egypt in my school-books. I could not explain why, but something 'different' happened to me when I looked at those pictures.. something that never happened at all when I was not looking upon the Magic of Egypt. It is an Enigma, like the Sphinx which is it's most famous symbol. Any who have been touched by it's spell can neither "explain" it nor solve it's riddle.

But we CAN surrender to it, if we wish. For generations now the ancient texts have been available to us, to study; Hebet En Ba: the Book Of Rites. It was left for us, carved and painted upon tomb-walls, written on papyrus scrolls buried with scribes, viziers and kings. Sure, you have to be able to 'weed-out' of the scrolls the lengthy Funerary Prayers (for the great Rites were preserved, intermingled with the Funeral Rites as well).. but that is not difficult to do. For any who really want them, the Rites Of Egypt are there for us to find and use.

I discovered Hebet En Ba in my teens.. over thirty years ago, now.. quite 'by accident.' Having saved-up for a copy of "The Egyptian Book Of The Dead" translated by E. A. Wallis Budge, I discovered the joy of reciting it's ancient lines aloud to myself. I thought at first I was only being "picky" and squeamish for never reading-aloud the Funerary bits; as I thought I was only taking Poetic License when I carefully pieced-together phrases from one Chapter to combine with phrases from other Chapters, to produce what I found "more meaningful" than the arrangements found in the Funerary Texts. But, after a short while I realized that what I was reciting aloud in the ancient Egyptian tongue was actually happening to me, afterwards.

I am no 'authority' on what is possible for other people. The Rites I have used have helped me, and I am eternally grateful to them. They have also helped many others who "borrowed" or discovered them through me. Perhaps they will also help you, if you wish. The "scroll" of Rites which you will reach in a moment or two is yours to grow by. I wish you joy of it.

Notes On Ceremonial Mysticism

That ancient Egyptian Mysticism relied upon the same "Tetramorphic" magic circle familiar to all other Mysticisms the world over is beyond argument. While no actual 'Ritual Instructions' used by the Temple Authorities have survived the centuries, we certainly do know that the Egyptians recognized four "deities" or Neteru (the Egyptian word for "Spiritual Powers" within Nature, commonly translated as 'gods') who governed the Four Quarters of the globe. These are named Tuameutev, Amset, Qebsenuv and Hapi.. and are assigned specific directions of the compass, each. Thus, it can be reasonably implied that these Neteru or "Natures" were addressed in the same way by Egyptians as they are (under different names) by European Pagans, Native Americans and Hebraic Kaballists.

Being practicing Kaballists with more than a little exposure to Native American traditions as well as European Paganism, we in our Order simply perform a Circle Rite; standing in the center of any place we wish to use as our "sanctuary" we hold out our right hand to the EAST while saying in Egyptian 'homage to thee, Tuameutev' (Anet-hra.k Tuameutev) then turning SOUTH we name the Power Amset then turning WEST we name Qebsenuv and turning NORTH we name Hapi. Turning back to the EAST (where the Sun and therefore Life 'rises' upon the earth) we name lastly one of the three "Cradle Deities" who caretake the inception of New Life and Beginnings within Egyptian Mystical tradition. Named Shai, Renenet and Meskhenet, these three each caretake one specific type of New Beginning.. and which one you address ought to fit the type of Rite you are performing.

SHAI: the Power of FORTUNE

If the end-goal of one's Rite happens to be "Good Fortune" in the material, wealth, health and happiness departments, then the traditional custodian of that is named Shai. This Neter is considered the custodian of all material bounty, and is the natural choice in many life-circumstances.

RENENET: the Power of LUCK

If the situation one's Rite is intended to improve happens to be that mysterious stuff variously called 'Destiny' and 'Luck' as well as "Favorable Outcomes" in one's affairs, then the natural choice is Renenet, the Neter of "happy destiny and good luck."


We all need a New Life occasionally; whether it is new vitality for our bodies or a new Life-Direction for our future, or a "rebirth" for our society or those within it. In all such cases, the natural choice of 'patron' for one's Rite would be the "birth-diety" Meshkenet, who presided over the birth-bed of the ancient Egyptians. As the patroness of Midwives, Meskhenet is also invoked by all those who attend the rebirthing of others.. from healers of the body, mind and spirit to guides of the Soul or even of the professional career.

Thus, a Ritual Circle might begin and end facing East, invoking "Anet-hra.k Tuametuev, Amset, Qebsenuv, Hapi, Meskhenet (or Shai or Renenet;) Ankh.v em T'etta.a!" (live or behave according to my words.) This might then be followed by any Rite taken directly from the Hebet En Ba that follows, or composed by you specifically for your needs.

But, Why In EGYPTIAN?!

I cannot 'prove' that such things make any difference at all.. except by quoting examples of success and it's absence. According to the Egyptians themselves, their language was given them directly from the Spiritual World, by the Neteru or "gods." Certainly ancient Egyptian has similarities and common roots shared with some other ancient languages, though Egypt's claim that the very sounds comprising their language are themselves "Powers" should not be dismissed lightly (future generations of scientists may yet discover that Sounds are Powers in their own right.) But perhaps the best argument in favor of the use of "reconstructed" Egyptian in these Rites is that Egyptian "divinity" may very well still 'speak' the Egyptian tongue. Silly as this may sound to you right now, you may change that opinion, should you happen to meet one of the Neteru as a result of these Rites. Be that as it may, these are the Egyptian Mystical Rites we have used, and found to be worthy.

PLEASE NOTE: you would be well-advised to carefully study the Adendum at the end of the following Scroll, before you improvise any new Rites of your own.. especially any including the names of other Egyptian "deities;" for some of those Neteru are simply not "safe" or wise to invoke.


Invocation of the Godself

We all "sense" the presence of Amen, the Hidden One living within us.. and all spiritual Paths attempt to connect us consciously with "him" (or "her" or "it!.") This invocation informs Amen that you "know" of him and wish to integrate him fully. Used however often one wishes for an initial period of "Introduction" to the Godself Within, this Invocation may stimulate Amen's "revelation" of himself to you while also establishing the "dialogue-circuit" of "logoic speech" in Egyptian between you and your Indwelling Godself, Amen.


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African New Year






Babylonian New Year began with the first New Moon after the Northward equinox (March 20-21). Our practice of New Year’s resolutions goes back 4,000 years to the ancient Babylonians, who made sure to settle up accounts by returning borrowed farm equipment before their new year. It was these ancient people whom I surmised influenced our current tax schedule.

Egyptian calendar, dating system established several thousand years before the Christian era, the first calendar known to use a year of 365 days, approximately equal to the solar year. In addition to this civil calendar, the ancient Egyptians simultaneously maintained a second calendar based upon the phases of the moon.

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15 Things You Did Not Know About the Moors of Spain


1. The Spanish occupation by the Moors began in 711 AD when an African army, under their leader Tariq ibn-Ziyad, crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from northern Africa and invaded the Iberian peninsula ‘Andalus' (Spain under the Visigoths).



2. A European scholar sympathetic to the Spaniards remembered the conquest in this way:

a. [T]he reins of their (Moors) horses were as fire, their faces black as pitch, their eyes shone like burning candles, their horses were swift as leopards and the riders fiercer than a wolf in a sheepfold at night . . . The noble Goths [the German rulers of Spain to whom Roderick belonged] were broken in an hour, quicker than tongue can tell. Oh luckless Spain! [i]

[i] Quoted in Edward Scobie, The Moors and Portugal's Global Expansion, in Golden Age of the Moor, ed Ivan Van Sertima, US, Transaction Publishers, 1992, p.336




3. The Moors, who ruled Spain for 800 years, introduced new scientific techniques to Europe, such as an astrolabe, a device for measuring the position of the stars and planets. Scientific progress in Astronomy, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, Geography and Philosophy flourished in Moorish Spain




4. Basil Davidson, one of the most noted historians recognized and declared that there were no lands at that time (the eighth century) "more admired by its neighbours, or more comfortable to live in, than a rich African civilization which took shape in Spain"



5. At its height, Córdova, the heart of Moorish territory in Spain, was the most modern city in Europe. The streets were well-paved, with raised sidewalks for pedestrians. During the night, ten miles of streets were well illuminated by lamps. (This was hundreds of years before there was a paved street in Paris or a street lamp in London.) Cordova had 900 public baths - we are told that a poor Moor would go without bread rather than soap!



6. The Great Mosque of Córdoba (La Mezquita) is still one of the architectural wonders of the world in spite of later Spanish disfigurements. Its low scarlet and gold roof, supported by 1,000 columns of marble, jasper and and porphyry, was lit by thousands of brass and silver lamps which burned perfumed oil.



7. Education was universal in Moorish Spain, available to all, while in Christian Europe ninety-nine percent of the population were illiterate, and even kings could neither read nor write. At that time, Europe had only two universities, the Moors had seventeen great universities! These were located in Almeria, Cordova, Granada, Juen, Malaga, Seville, and Toledo.



8. In the tenth and eleventh centuries, public libraries in Europe were non-existent, while Moorish Spain could boast of more than seventy, of which the one in Cordova housed six hundred thousand manuscripts.



9. Over 4,000 Arabic words and Arabic-derived phrases have been absorbed into the Spanish language. Words beginning with "al," for example, are derived from Arabic. Arabic words such as algebra, alcohol, chemistry, nadir, alkaline, and cipher entered the language. Even words such as checkmate, influenza, typhoon, orange, and cable can be traced back to Arabic origins.



10. The most significant Moorish musician was known as Ziryab (the Blackbird) who arrived in Spain in 822. The Moors introduced earliest versions of several instruments, including the Lute or el oud, the guitar or kithara and the Lyre. Ziryab changed the style of eating by breaking meals into separate courses beginning with soup and ending with desserts.



11. The #Moors introduced paper to Europe and Arabic numerals, which replaced the clumsy Roman system.



12. The Moors introduced many new crops including the orange, lemon, peach, apricot, fig, sugar cane, dates, ginger and pomegranate as well as saffron, sugar cane, cotton, silk and rice which remain some of Spain's main products today.



13. The Moorish rulers lived in sumptuous palaces, while the monarchs of Germany, France, and England dwelt in big barns, with no windows and no chimneys, and with only a hole in the roof for the exit of smoke. One such Moorish palace ‘Alhambra' (literally "the red one") in Granada is one of Spain's architectural masterpieces. Alhambra was the seat of Muslim rulers from the 13th century to the end of the 15th century. The Alhambra is a UNESCO World Heritage Site



14. It was through Africa that the new knowledge of China, India, and Arabia reached Europe The #Moors brought the Compass from China into Europe.



15. The Moors ruled and occupied Lisbon (named "Lashbuna" by the Moors) and the rest of the country until well into the twelfth century. They were finally defeated and driven out by the forces of King Alfonso Henriques. The scene of this battle was the Castelo de Sao Jorge or the 'Castle of St. George.'

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The True Negros Of Arabia


THE ARABS - Who is an Arab?



The Turks and their Mulattoes, along with the usual suspects of European Albinos, wishing to write Blacks out of history, have managed to control the conversation so far, as to who is actually an Arab.










We find it so strange to use an Albino institution for a modicum of truth in the contrived conversation of lies concerning Arabs, but here it is.







W. Montgomery Watt and Pierre Cachia

Over a hundred million people in the world call themselves Arabs. That is to say the least, a potential force in world politics, quite apart from the question of oil. Yet many observers are inclined to doubt whether there is any reality underlying the common use of the term Arab. And it is indeed not easy to define what is meant by an Arab.

The Arabs are not a distinct ethnic group, since there are both white Arabs and black arabs. Some of the Black Sudanese Arabs claim descent ln the male line from Arabs of Mohammed's time, and may well be correct in their claim. Nor is language a sufficient criterion of Arabness since there are many Arabic-speaking jews who are not normally called Arabs. The figure of a hundred million come from the populations of the states in the Arab League. For membership ln the Arab League the primary criterion appears to be language: but, despite the presence of Lebanon, which is half Christian, this tends to be coupled with the acceptance of Arab-Islamic culture.

Modern Arab intellectuals are well aware of the difficulty in defining an Arab. As long ago as December, 1938, a conference of Arab students in Europe, held in Brussels, declared that "all who are Arab in their language, culture and loyalty (or "national feeling") are Arabs." Click here for article online


Which is really another way for the Albino people to say that "We are whatever People we say we are". Thus we are American Indians, Berbers, Egyptians, Persians, and even Jews. (It is interesting to note that the Albino people calling themselves Jews are really just another Turkic tribe (the Khazars). Thus they are the cousins of the Turk Mulattoes they are at war with, over land the Turks took from Blacks).


































Note: Just as modern Christian culture is far removed from ancient Hebrew culture - it is now European culture. So too is modern Arab culture far removed from original Arab culture - it is now Turkish culture. During the time of the Turkish Ottoman Empire (1299 - 1922), Islam was not known as the Arab religion, it was known as the Turkish religion.


The Thawb (Arab Robes) Emblematic of Arab culture, is not Arab at all. The original Arabs, like the Egyptians, Berbers, Mesopotamian's, Elamites/Persians: had Black skin, they did not need the Head to Toe protection from the Sun, that the Thawb affords. It is not known who invented the Thawb, but it is known that even though the Turks once ruled from Baghdad, they hated to go there because of the hot climate and burning Sunshine. Being that the original Turks were a very pale skinned Albino people who needed protection from the Sun, it is likely that they invented the Thawb.




Modern man of Turkic ethnicity in a Thawb








Even with all of the above proofs and logic, we know that there are those delusional "Many" who will still insist that those Turks and Turk Mulattoes are really Arabs. In answer to those delusional people, we offer these comments:


François Auguste Ferdinand Mariette (1821 – 1881) French scholar, Archaeologist, Egyptologist, and the founder of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.


With, an Introductory Note by William C. Winslow, D.D., D.C.L.
LL.D., Vice-President of the Egypt Exploration Fund for the United States


Page 28


"How often do we see in Eastern monarchies and even in European states a difference of origin between the ruling class, to which the royal family belongs, and the mass of the people! We need not leave Western Asia and Egypt; we find there Turks ruling over nations to the race of which they do not belong, although they have adopted their religion. In the same way as the Turks of Baghdad, who are Finns, now reign over Semites, Turanian kings may have led into Egypt and governed a population of mixed origin where the Semitic element was prevalent. If we consider the mixing up of races which took place in Mesopotamia in remote ages, the invasions which the country had to suffer, the repeated conflicts of which it was the theatre, there is nothing extraordinary that populations coming out of this land should have presented a variety of races and origins."

“The inhabitants of this part of Arabia nearly all belong to the race of Himyar. Their complexion is almost as black as the Abyssinians,”-- Baron von Maltzan, 'Geography of Southern Arabia' (1872)

“ [the Hamida are] small chocolate colored beings, stunted and thin… with mops of bushy hair… straggling beards , vicious eyes, frowning brows … armed with scabbards slung over the shoulder and Janbiyyah daggers…” a people “of the great Hejazi tribe that has kept his blood pure for the last 13 centuries…”-- Sir Richard Burton (1879)

“The people of Dhufar are of the Qahtan tribe, the sons of Joktan mentioned in Genesis: they are of Hamitic or African rather than Arab types…”--Arnold Wilson, The Geographical Journal (1927)

“the most prosperous tribe of all the Hamitic group, possessing innumerable camels, herds of cattle and the richest frankincense country. They resemble the Bisharin tribe of the Nubian desert. Men of big bone , they have long faces long narrow jaws, noses of a refined shape long curly hair and brown skin.”--Richmond Palmer (1929)

“Mahra is the Arab name for the Bedouin tribes who are different in appearance to other Arabs, having almost beardless faces, fuzzy hair and dark pigmentation – such as the Qarra, Mahra and Harasis… Also on “…the Qarra, Mahra and Harasis with parts of other tribes. The language is derived from the language of the Sabaeans, Minaeans and Himyarites. The Mahra with other Southern Arabian peoples seem aligned to the Hamitic race of north-east Africa… The Mahra are believed to be descended from the Habasha, who colonized Ethiopia in the first millennium BC”-- David Phillips, Peoples on the Move (2001)

“European observers have made much of their physical resemblance to Somalis and Ethiopians, but there is no historical evidence of any connections.”-- E. Peterson, 'Oman’s Diverse Society: Southern Oman'

“Mr. Baldwin draws a marked distinction between the modern Mahomedan Semitic population of Arabia and their great Cushite, Hamite, or Ethiopian predecessors. The former, he says, ‘are comparatively modern in Arabia,’ they have ‘appropriated the reputation of the old race,’ and have unduly occupied the chief attention of modern scholars.”-- Charles Hardwick (1872)

“Among ‘these Negroid features which may be counted normal in Arabs are the full,rather everted lips, shortness and width of nose, certain blanks in the bearded areas of the face between the lower lip and chin and on the cheeks; large, luscious,gazelle-like eyes, a dark brown complexion, and a tendency for the hair to grow in ringlets. Often the features of the more Negroid Arabs are derivatives of Dravidian India rather than inheritances of Hamitic Africa. Although the Arab of today is sharply differentiated from the Negro of Africa, yet there must have been a time when both were represented by a single ancestral stock; in no other way can the prevalence of certain Negroid features be accounted for in the natives of Arabia.”-- Henry Field, Anthropology Memoirs Volume 4 (1902)

“There is a considerable mass of evidence to show that there was a very close resemblance between the proto-Egyptians and the Arabs before either became intermingled with Armenoid racial elements.”-- Elliot Smith, he Ancient Egyptians and the Origins of Civilization (1923)

“In Arabia the first inhabitants were probably a dark-skinned, shortish population intermediate, between the African Hamites and the Dravidians of India and forming a single African Asiatic belt with these.”-- Handbook of the Territories which form the Theater of Operations of the Iraq Petroleum Company Limited and its Associated Companies

In scouring for these comments, one can't help but wonder: Who in the hell could possibly believe that Pale people could be native to a Hot land with burning Sunshine and a UV index guaranteed to fry all but the darkest people. It's delusional, just delusional!





The Arabs


Though by the Albino Mans edict, not a part of Africa. The people of the Arabian Peninsula and Africa have freely interchanged since man first walked the Earth. All of the people of the Desert regions from the Atlantic Ocean to the Persian Gulf share a similar physical type, Black skin color, lifestyle and culture: (pale skinned people would not survive long in the Desert - Turkish Wives stayed in their tents).






Some Arab History










Assyrian troops pursuing Arabs on camels





By the date that this panel was carved, the Arab tribes of northern Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Sinai were becoming increasingly important. They relied for long-distance travel and rapid movement on the one-humped camel or dromedary, which had been domesticated in Arabia. The Arabs first appear in Assyrian records in the ninth century B.C. Texts tell of tribes, often led by queens, living in the southern borders of the Assyrian Empire. Sometimes they guarded the borders, escorted armies in desert country, and controlled the caravan trade, especially the lucrative incense trade from Yemen.


Some tribes were also ready to take advantage of any sign of weakness in the central government. They then raided settled communities, supported rebellions, robbed caravans, and disrupted communications. The Assyrian kings launched several attacks against them without much success, since the Arabs conducted guerilla-style warfare, and were usually able to escape into the desert. Both the Assyrians and their successors, the Babylonian and Persian kings, tried to maintain peaceful relations with Arabia by threats and diplomacy. one Babylonian king, Nabonidus (555-539 B.C.) resided for several years at Teima, a centre of the incense trade in Saudi Arabia.

























The Turks first started usurping the Arabs when the Seljuq Turk chief Toghril Beg proclaimed himself sultan at Neyshabur in 1038. Toghril entered Baghdad in December 1055, and the Arab caliph al-Qa'im (reigned 1031–75) enthroned him, and married a Seljuq princess.


The Turks took direct control of Arabia when Sultan Mahmud II (1808-39), ordered his viceroy/governor of Egypt, the Turkic Albanian Muhammad Ali, to send an expedition to Arabia: which between 1811 and 1813 expelled the Arab Wahhabis from the Hejaz. In a further campaign (1816-18), Ibrahim Pasha, the viceroy's eldest son, defeated the Wahhabis in their homeland of Najd, and brought central Arabia under Albanian control.








In 1820-21 Muhammad Ali sent an expedition up the Nile and conquered much of what is now the northern Sudan. By so doing, he made himself master of one of the principal channels of the slave trade, and began an African Empire that was to be expanded under his successors. The conquest of the Sudan was intended to provide recruits. But the slaves, encamped at Aswan, died wholesale, and Muhammad Ali had to look elsewhere for his troops. In 1823 he took to conscripting Egyptian peasants for the rank and file of his new army. On the other hand, the officers were mostly Turkish Ottomans, while the director of the whole enterprise, Sulayman Pasha (Colonel Sève), was a former French officer. The conscription was brutally administered. In 1882 the British once again invaded and occupied Egypt. This occupation was to last until the end of WWI. After which, Egypt became a protectorate of Britain.






After World War I




Blacks in the Turkish ruled lands, have their identities stolen by the Turks, and their Mulattoes, after the break-up of the Ottoman Empire.


As with the Berbers, Egyptians, etc. After the breakup of the Ottoman Empire after WWI, and the granting of independence to those countries after WWII, The Arabs saw their identity stolen by Whites (mainly Turks and their mulattoes) and other mixed race people.


Thus Egypt is "The Arab Republic of Egypt" Syria is "The Syrian Arab Republic" Libya is "The Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" Jordan is "The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan" (Hashemite is the Latinate version of the Arabic transliteration of Hāšimī) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim Arabs, or "clan of Hashim", a clan within the larger Arab Quraish tribe. It also refers to an Arab dynasty whose original strength stemmed from the network of tribal alliances and blood loyalties in the Hejaz region of Arabia, along the Red Sea. (One can only wonder how sparsely populated Arabia could have possibly produced all of those people - what nonsense)!









A study of Arabian DNA confirms historical accounts of what happened in Arabia.


Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula (This is a study of FEMALE Mt-dna)


Click here for a link to the study




The results showed that the Arabian Peninsula has received substantial gene flow from Africa (20%), detected by the presence of L, M1 and U6 lineages; that an 18% of the Arabian Peninsula lineages have a clear eastern provenance, mainly represented by U lineages; but also by Indian M lineages and rare M links with Central Asia, Indonesia and even Australia. However, the bulk (62%) of the Arabian lineages has a Northern source. (That's just a mealy mouthed way of saying that 60% of the people in Arabia calling themselves Arabs, are actually from somewhere else, (They are Central Asia Albinos).














As indicated by the artwork above, a result of the Black Arabs fondness for sex with Albino females:


was that the old woman's type shown below, was supplanted by that of her grandchild, (the Mulatto).











Genetic data and such things are fine, however it would be a dereliction not to make note that the major confusion of who are actual Arabs, is as usual, not an accident, but rather, another way the Albino people falsify and obfuscate history for the purpose of writing Blacks out of history. Take the work of Bertram Thomas - his book "Arabia Felix - Across The Empty Quarter of Arabia" was published in 1932. What is incredible about Thomas's book is that he supposedly transversed a large swath of Arabia taking pictures, and somehow managed to photograph NOT ONE SINGLE BLACK ARAB! Only Mulatto Arabs were photographed. Examples follow:































In October 1959 Wilfred Thesiger did the same thing: He wrote the book "Thesiger's Journeys in Arabia - First Empty Quarter Crossing 1946-7" and like Bertram Thomas, Wilfred Thesiger somehow managed to photograph NOT ONE SINGLE BLACK ARAB! Only Mulatto Arabs were photographed. Examples follow:















Is it any wonder then, why the general public would be confused as to what a "Real" Arab looks like?






In 1943 LIFE Magazine did an article on Arabs in Jerusalem, and did include a very few images of "Real" Arabs:












But in typical Albino fashion, the overwhelming number of photographs were of Albinos or Mulattoes.




Some might say: well that's from the "Bad old days" of overt Racism: Not So..









The Rashaida, (Rashaayda or Bani Rashid "Refugees") are a tribe populating Eritrea and northeast Sudan. In 1846, many Rashaida migrated from the Hejaz in present day Saudi Arabia into what is now Eritrea and northeast Sudan, after tribal warfare had broken out in their homeland. The Rashaida of Sudan and Eritrea live in close proximity with the Beja people. Large numbers of Bani Rasheed are also found on the Arabian Peninsula. The Bani Rashid are related to the Banu Abs tribe.


The Rashaida keep their traditional dress, culture, customs, camel breeds and practice of Sunni Islam. The racing camel breeds of the Rashaida tribe are prized all over Sudan and the Arabian Peninsula and fetch very high prices. The Rashaida speak Hejazi Arabic.










Bani Rasheed people (Rashaida) - Camel herders at the Riyadh Camel market.





















More related Genetic data:




Y-dna Haplogroup J-P209 (This is Male dna).


In human population genetics, haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa. Haplogroup J-P209[Phylogenetics 1] is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Its history since the Iron Age has been tied to the great events and migrations in this area and in particular to the Semitic people.


J-P209 is divided into two main subclades (branches) J-M267 and J-M172.


Haplogroup J-M267


In human genetics, Y DNA haplogroup J-M267[Phylogenetics 1] is a subclade (branch) of Y-DNA haplogroup J-P209,[Phylogenetics 2] along with its sibling clade Y DNA haplogroup J-M172. Men from this lineage share a common paternal ancestor, which is demonstrated and defined by the presence of the SNP mutation referred to as M267, which was announced in (Cinnioğlu 2004). This haplogroup is found today in significant frequencies in many areas in order near the Middle East. For example it is among the most frequent haplogroups in Arabian Peninsula, and parts of the Caucasus, Sudan and the Horn of Africa. It is also found in high frequencies in parts of North Africa Jewish groups especially those with Cohen surnames. It can also be found much less commonly, but still occasionally in significant amounts, in Europe and as far east as the Central Asia.


(White people are Dravidian Albinos who migrated from India into Central Asia in search of cooler climates and less intense Sunshine). Jews (Khazars) are a Turkish tribe, quite distinct from Hebrews.


Haplogroup J-M172


In human genetics, Haplogroup J-M172[Phylogenetics 1] is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subclade (branch) of haplogroup J-P209.[Phylogenetics 2] J-M172 can be classified as Greco-Anatolian, Mesopotamian and/or Caucasian and is linked to the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia. It was carried by Bronze Age immigrants to Europe, and ultimately descends from the Cro-Magnon population (IJ-M429 Y-DNA) that emerged in Southwest Asia around 35,000 years ago (Sengupta 2006).




In modern Saudi Arabia, the original Arabs (the Black ones) have been relegated to the deserts and the tribal areas in the south at the Yemeni boarder. The preponderance of haplogroup "J" in the Saudi Arabian DNA, suggests that these areas were purposefully avoided or severely under-represented when doing the DNA survey. For it is extremely unlikely that these Qahtan and Wayla tribesmen from the Najran area, close to the border with Yemen, would be of haplogroup "J".

























Saba - Yemen




Encyclopædia Britannica


Sabaʾ, biblical Sheba, kingdom in pre-Islamic southwestern Arabia, frequently mentioned in the Bible (notably in the story of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba) and variously cited by ancient Assyrian, Greek, and Roman writers from about the 8th century bc to about the 5th century ad. Its capital, at least in the middle period, was Maʾrib, which lies 75 miles (120 km) east of present-day Sanaa, in Yemen. A second major city was Ṣirwāḥ.


The Sabaeans were a Semitic people who, at an unknown date, entered southern Arabia from the north, imposing their Semitic culture on an aboriginal population. Excavations in central Yemen suggest that the Sabaean civilization began as early as the 10th–12th century bc. By the 7th–5th century bc, besides “kings of Sabaʾ ” there were individuals styling themselves “mukarribs of Sabaʾ,” who apparently either were high priest–princes or exercised some function parallel to the kingly function. This middle period was characterized above all by a tremendous outburst of building activity, principally at Maʾrib and Ṣirwāḥ, and most of the great temples and monuments, including the great Maʾrib Dam, on which Sabaean agricultural prosperity depended, date back to this period. Further, there was an ever-shifting pattern of alliances and wars between Sabaʾ and other peoples of southwestern Arabia—not only the important kingdoms of Qatabān and Ḥaḍramawt but also a number of lesser but still independent kingdoms and city-states.


Sabaʾ was rich in spices and agricultural products and carried on a wealth of trade by overland caravan and by sea. For centuries it controlled Bāb el-Mandeb, the straits leading into the Red Sea, and it established many colonies on the African shores. That Abyssinia (Ethiopia) was peopled from South Arabia is proved linguistically; but the difference between the Sabaean and Ethiopian languages is such as to imply that the settlement was very early and that there were many centuries of separation, during which the Abyssinians were exposed to foreign influences. New colonies, however, seem occasionally to have followed, and some parts of the African coast were under the suzerainty of the Sabaean kings as late as the 1st century bc.


Toward the end of the 3rd century ad, a powerful king named Shamir Yuharʿish (who seems incidentally to be the first really historical personage whose fame has survived in the Islamic traditions) assumed the title “king of Sabaʾ and the Dhū Raydān and of Ḥaḍramawt and Yamanāt.” By this time, therefore, the political independence of Ḥaḍramawt had succumbed to Sabaʾ, which had thus become the controlling power in all southwestern Arabia. In the mid-4th century ad, it underwent a temporary eclipse, for the title of “king of Sabaʾ and the Dhū Raydān” was then claimed by the king of Aksum on the east African coast. At the end of the 4th century, southern Arabia was again independent under a “king of Sabaʾ and the Dhū Raydān and Ḥaḍramawt and Yamanāt.” But within two centuries the Sabaeans would disappear as they were successively overrun by Persian adventurers and by the Muslim Arabs.








"Real" Arabs





























































































The Arabs and Moors were very fond of Turkish women, they kept their Harems well stocked with them.







































































































































The original Turks were a Central Asian Albino people, just like the Germanics and Slavs now in Europe and Russia: And they were just as Pale as the Germanics and Slavs too. However, admixture with the native Blacks of Anatolia, North Africa, The Middle-East, and Arabia, has significantly changed the Turk phenotype.







(The Qajar dynasty is a Persianized Iranian royal family of Turkic origin, which ruled Persia (Iran) from 1785 to 1925. The Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794 after deposing Lotf 'Ali Khan, the last of the Zand dynasty rulers - who were also foreigners).




Today - with the help of European Albino media, the Turk mulattoes have completely usurped the Arab identity, along with that of the original North Africans and Middle-Easterns. Today - THIS is what an Arab, Berber, Egyptian, Babylonian, Mesopotamian, Persian, etc. looks like.






Why are the same looking people Everywhere?









Turk Mulattoes and Quadroons






































Ancient man crossed Arabia to settle the rest of the World






Arabian Artifacts May Rewrite 'Out of Africa' Theory


Charles Choi, LiveScience Contributor, November 30, 2011


New found stone artifacts suggest humankind left Africa traveling through the Arabian Peninsula instead of hugging its coasts, as long thought, researchers say. Modern humans first arose about 200,000 years ago in Africa. When and how our lineage then dispersed has long proven controversial, but geneticists have suggested this exodus started between 40,000 and 70,000 years ago. The currently accepted theory is that the exodus from Africa traced Arabia's shores, rather than passing through its now-arid interior.


However, stone artifacts at least 100,000 years old from the Arabian Desert, revealed in January 2011, hinted that modern humans might have begun our march across the globe earlier than once suspected. Now, more-than-100 newly discovered sites in the Sultanate of Oman apparently confirm that modern humans left Africa through Arabia long before genetic evidence suggests. Oddly, these sites are located far inland, away from the coasts."After a decade of searching in southern Arabia for some clue that might help us understand early human expansion, at long last we've found the smoking gun of their exit from Africa," said lead researcher Jeffrey Rose, a paleolithic archaeologist at the University of Birmingham in England. "What makes this so exciting is that the answer is a scenario almost never considered."









The international team of archaeologists and geologists made their discovery in the Dhofar Mountains of southern Oman, nestled in the southeastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula. "The coastal expansion hypothesis looks reasonable on paper, but there is simply no archaeological evidence to back it up," said researcher Anthony Marks of Southern Methodist University, referring to the fact that an exodus by the coast, where one has access to resources such as seafood, might make more sense than tramping across the desert.


On the last day of the research team's 2010 field season, the scientists went to the final place on their list, a site on a hot, windy, dry plateau near a river channel that was strewn with stone artifacts. Such artifacts are common in Arabia, but until now the ones seen were usually relatively young in age. Upon closer examination, Rose recalled asking, "Oh my God, these are Nubians — what the heck are these doing here?" The 100-to-200 artifacts they found there were of a style dubbed Nubian Middle Stone Age, well-known throughout the Nile Valley, where they date back about 74,000-to-128,000 years. Scientists think ancient craftsmen would have shaped the artifacts by striking flakes off flint, leading to distinctive triangular pieces. This is the first time such artifacts have been found outside of Africa. Subsequent field work turned up dozens of sites with similar artifacts. Using a technique known as optically stimulated luminescence dating, which measures the minute amount of light long-buried objects can emit, to see how long they have been interred, the researchers estimate the artifacts are about 106,000 years old, exactly what one might expect from Nubian Middle Stone Age artifacts and far earlier than conventional dates for the exodus from Africa.


Finding so much evidence of life in what is now a relatively barren desert supports the importance of field work, according to the researchers. "Here we have an example of the disconnect between theoretical models versus real evidence on the ground," Marks said. However, when these artifacts were made, instead of being desolate, Arabia was very wet, with copious rain falling across the peninsula, transforming its barren deserts to fertile, sprawling grasslands with lots of animals to hunt, the researchers explained. "For a while, South Arabia became a verdant paradise rich in resources — large game, plentiful fresh water, and high-quality flint with which to make stone tools," Rose said.


Instead of hugging the coast, early modern humans might therefore have spread from Africa into Arabia along river networks that would've acted like today's highways, researchers suggested. There would have been plenty of large game present, such as gazelles, antelopes and ibexes, which would have been appealing to early modern humans used to hunting on the savannas of Africa.





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Ghandi and Blacks

The Durban Post Office
One of Gandhi's major "achievements" in South Africa was to promote racial segregation by refusing to share a post office door with the black natives.

Sergeant Major Gandhi
Learn how Gandhi became a Sgt. Major in the British Army and eagerly participated in the 1906 British war against the black Zulus.

Gandhi and South African Blacks
Gandhi wrote extensively about his experiences with the blacks of South Africa. He always termed them "Kaffirs" and his writings reveal a deep-seated disdain for these African natives.


Gandhi is idolized by people of all political stripes around the world, and his life is popularly considered a model for the American Civil Rights Movement.

U.S. Senator Harry Reid called Gandhi “a giant in morality.” Former U.S president Ronald Reagan signed a bill creating a “National Day of Recognition for Mohandas K. Gandhi.” South African leader Nelson Mandela called Gandhi “the archetypal anticolonial revolutionary” whose “nonviolent resistance inspired anticolonial and antiracist movements.” African-American Senator Obama reportedly keeps a picture of Gandhi in his office.

Martin Luther King, Jr. associated Gandhi with the African-American struggle against inequality, segregation, and racism. Reverend King believed Gandhi was “inspired by the vision of humanity evolving toward...peace and harmony.” When the Indian government paid to place a statue of Gandhi at the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Center in Atlanta, Mrs. King spoke about her husband's admiration for Gandhi, saying, “It is gratifying and appropriate that this statue is installed in this historic site.”

Unfortunately, these people were never acquainted with the real, historical Mohandas Gandhi, who was a virulent racist.

Gandhi was hired to work as an attorney for wealthy Indian traders in South Africa. He moved there in 1893 and soon helped establish the Natal Indian Congress. The goal of this Congress was to “promote concord and harmony among the Indians and Europeans residing in the colony [of South Africa].” Instead of concord and harmony with the blacks, however, Gandhi promoted racial segregation. The major achievement of the Congress was the successful attempt, spear-headed by Gandhi, to fix the Durban post office “problem.” This issue is discussed in-depth here.

In 1904, Gandhi founded The Indian Opinion, a newspaper which he used as a political tool to promote his personal views. It is in this paper, which Gandhi edited until 1914, that we find a record of his extensive anti-black activism and opinions. A list of anti-black quotes from his writings, in which he invariably refers to the South African natives as “Kaffirs,” can be found here. Gandhi's opinion of the native is best summarized when he calls them people “whose occupation is hunting, and whose sole ambition is to collect a certain number of cattle to buy a wife with and, then, pass his life in indolence and nakedness.”

Finally, in 1906, Gandhi cheered on the British as they waged a war on the black Zulus. He then volunteered for military service himself, attaining the rank of Sgt. Major in the British Army and assisting the war on blacks in every way he could. You can learn more about this here.

One of the best-known heroes of the American Civil Rights Movement was Rosa Parks, the black lady who refused to sit at the back of the bus. While Gandhi is upheld as a champion of equality, the truth is that he probably would not even have allowed Mrs. Parks on the bus in the first place. He proudly said that among South African Indians, the “co-mingling of the coloured and white practically unknown.” Gandhi also boasted, “If there is one thing, which the Indian cherishes, more than any other, it is the purity of type.”

People remember Rev. King for his most famous speech, in which he said: “I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.” To associate Martin Luther King, Jr. with Mohandas Gandhi, whose dream was to clear the way for Apartheid in South Africa, is an insult to the memory of Rev. King.

All quotes taken from Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi (CWMG).

Sept. 26, 1896: “Ours is one continual struggle against a degradation sought to be inflicted upon us by the Europeans, who desire to degrade us to the level of the raw Kaffir* whose occupation is hunting, and whose sole ambition is to collect a certain number of cattle to buy a wife with and, then, pass his life in indolence and nakedness.” — Vol. 1, p. 410

Sept. 24, 1903: “We believe as much in the purity of race as we think they do… We believe also that the white race of South Africa should be the predominating race.” — Vol. 3, p. 256

Feb. 15, 1904: “Under my suggestion, the Town Council must withdraw the Kaffirs from the Location. About this mixing of the Kaffirs with the Indians, I must confess I feel most strongly. I think it is very unfair to the Indian population.” — Vol. 3, p. 429

Sept. 5, 1905: “The decision to open the school for all Coloured children is unjust to the Indian community, and is a departure from the assurance given… that the school will be reserved for Indian children only.” — Vol. 4, p. 402

Sept. 2, 1907: “From these views expressed by a White we have a lesson to learn: We must encourage the Whites too. It is a short-sighted policy to employ, through sheer niggardliness, a Kaffir for washing work. If we keep in view the conditions in this country and patronize the Whites, whenever proper and necessary, then every such White will serve as an advertisement for the Indian trader.” — Vol. 6, p. 276

Feb. 29, 1908: “The British rulers take us to be so lowly and ignorant that they assume that, like the Kaffirs who can be pleased with toys and pins, we can also be fobbed off with trinkets.” — Vol. 8, p. 167

Mar. 7, 1908: “We were all prepared for hardships, but not quite for this experience. We could understand not being classed with the whites, but to be placed on the same level with the Natives seemed too much to put up with.” — Vol. 8, p. 198

Mar. 7, 1908: “Kaffirs are as a rule uncivilised – the convicts even more so…. The reader can easily imagine the plight of the poor Indian thrown into such company!” — Vol. 8, p. 199

Jan. 16, 1909: “I have, though, resolved in my mind on an agitation to ensure that Indian prisoners are not lodged with Kaffirs…. I observed with regret that some Indians were happy to sleep in the same room as the Kaffirs…. This is a matter of shame to us. We may entertain no aversion to Kaffirs, but we cannot ignore the fact that there is no common ground between them and us in the daily affairs of life.” — Vol. 9, p. 257

Jan. 23, 1909: “I acquainted the Governor with what had happened and told him there was urgent need for separate lavatories for Indians. I also told him that Indian prisoners should never be lodged with Kaffirs. The Governor immediately issued an order for a lavatory for Indians to be sent on from the Central Gaol. Thus, from the next day the difficulty about lavatories disappeared.” — Vol. 9, p. 270

June 5, 1909: “I received from General Smuts two books on religion, and I inferred from this that it was not under his orders that I had been subjected to hardships, but that it was the result of his negligence and that of others, as also a consequence of the fact that we are equated with the Kaffirs.” — Vol. 9, p. 355

Dec. 2, 1910: “Some Indians do have contacts with Kaffir women. I think such contacts are fraught with grave danger. Indians would do well to avoid them altogether.” — Vol. 10, p. 414

The term “Kaffir” is a pejorative South African term for black people which is equivalent to the ‘n’ word. Use of this term has been a criminal offense in South Africa since 1975. Despite always using it to describe black Africans, Gandhi was fully aware of the offensive nature of the word. This is demonstrated by Gandhi’s comment during a religious conflict in India, when he said: “If ‘Kaffir’ is a term of opprobrium, how much more so is Chandal?” [CWMG, Vol. 28, p. 62] “Chandal” is a racist term for low-caste Hindus.


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Million mummy mystery: Egyptian cemetery with 1mn bodies stumps scientists

Million mummy mystery: Egyptian cemetery with 1mn bodies stumps scientists


A mummy of a 18 months old girl (image from

A mummy of a 18 months old girl (image from

An ancient cemetery in Egypt contains 1 million bodies, according to a team of archeologists who discovered the burial ground. What the site represents remains a mystery, as the scientists are still puzzled about where exactly all the people came from.


"We are fairly certain we have over a million burials within this cemetery. It's large, and it's dense," said Project Director Kerry Muhlestein, an associate professor in the Department of Ancient Scripture at Brigham Young University (BYU). Muhlestein presented his findings at the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities Scholars Colloquium, held in Toronto in November, Live Science reported.


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Archaeologists from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, have been exploring a mysterious cemetery in Egypt for about 30 years. They excavated about 1,700 mummies within the project in Egypt so far. But there is still much work to do.


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According to the archaeologists many of the mummies date back to the times when Egypt was a Roman province, from the 1st century BC onward.

Scientists say a nearby village seems too small to produce all these large burial sites. A small pyramid is situated near the cemetery. But it was built more than 4,500 years ago, about 2 millennia before these million mummies were buried.

People buried at the cemetery, which is now called Fag el-Gamous (Way of the Water Buffalo), did not belong to royalty, concluded the researchers. There were no coffins. And the internal organs of the deceased were rarely removed.

"I don't think you would term what happens to these burials as true mummification. If we want to use the term loosely, then they were mummified," Muhlestein said, adding that they were in fact mummified by the arid natural environment.


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However, researchers still found some beautiful items at the burial site. The objects include linen, glass and even colorful booties for a child.

"A lot of their wealth, or the little that they had, was poured into these burials," Muhlestein said.


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Giants and blondes

During excavation the archeologists discovered a mummy of a 18 months old girl which was “beautifully wrapped in a tunic and with other nice wrappings,” the scientists wrote on BYU in Egypt Facebook page.

The researchers say there was evidence that they tried “much of the full mummification process.”


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“The toes and toenails and brain and tongue were amazingly preserved. We found a wonderful necklace and two bracelets on each arm. The jewelry makes us think it was a girl, but we cannot tell.”


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“She was buried with great care as someone who obviously loved her very much did all they could to take care of this little girl in burial. Very sad. But they succeeded, it was a beautiful burial.“

The scientists found one mummy with a height of more than 2 meters, Muhlestein told the audience in Toronto. The mummy was discovered long before Muhlestein became the project director.

"We once found a male who was over 7 feet (2.1 meters) tall, who was far too tall to fit into the shaft, so they bent him in half and tossed him in," he said.


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The researcher later told Live Science that “even with great nutrition, it's really unusual" as generally common people didn’t have enough food at that time.

One more mystery of the mummy burials was the large number of blonde and red-headed mummies.

According to Muhlestein, the researchers can use the database to "show us all of the blonde burials, and [it shows] they are clustered in one area, or all of the red-headed burials, and [it shows] they're clustered in another area."

‘Perhaps we have family areas or genetic groups [in certain areas], but we're still trying to explore that," he added.


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Article Source: RT


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A True Description of the Prophet Mohamed's Family (SAWS)

The term Sharif (nobleman) or Sayyid is used to describe a descendant of the Prophet Mohamed (SAWS) through his daughter Fatima (RAA). They are descendants of Al Hasan and Al Husein- the two sons of Ali ibn Abi Talib (RAA) and Fatima the daughter of the Prophet Mohamed (SAWS). The Prophet Mohamed (SAWS) and Ali ibn Abi Talib (RAA) are from the Bani Hashim branch of the tribe of Quraish. They are the noblest of the Arabs. The Prophet Mohamed (SAWS) and Ali ibn Abi Talib (RAA) were first cousins. Ali’s father, Abi Talib, was the brother of the Prophet’s (SAWS) father. Once it has been established that the Bani Hashim were a black-skinned people, there should be no need to prove that the pure Arabs of the past were, in general, a black-skinned people.

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African Creation Myths

Boshongo(Bantu Tribe):
In the beginning there was only darkness, water, and the great god Bumba. One day Bumba, in pain from a stomach ache, vomited up the sun. The sun dried up some of the water, leaving land. Still in pain, Bumba vomited up the moon, the stars, and then some animals: the leopard, the crocodile, the turtle, and, finally, some men, one of whom, Yoko Lima was white like Bumba.
At the beginning of time, Amma (a supreme god who lived in the celestial regions and was the origin of all creation) created the Earth and immediately joined with it. But the Earth's clitoris opposed the male penis. Amma destroyed it, circumcising his wife, and they had a child, Ogo, and the twins, the Nommo. Ogo had no partner and was barren, so he introduced disorder into the world by committing incest with his mother, Earth. The first menstrual blood came from this union, as well as Yeban and Andumbulu, the spirits of the underworld.
Amma created the stars by throwing pellets of earth into space. He created the sun and moon by modelling two white earthenware bowls, one encircled with red copper, the other with white copper. Black people were born under the sun and white people under the moon. (The latter paragraph is quoted in L.V.Thomas, Les Religions de L'Afrique noire, Paris, 1969)
Efik(Central Nigeria):
The creator, Abassi, created two humans and then decided to not allow them to live on earth. His wife, Atai, persuaded him to let them do so. In order to control the humans, Abassi insisted that they eat all their meals with him, thereby keeping them from growing or hunting food. He also forbade them to procreate. Soon, though, the woman began growing food in the earth, and they stopped showing up to eat with Abassi. Then the man joined his wife in the fields, and before long there were children also. Abassi blamed his wife for the way things had turned out, but she told him she would handle it. She sent to earth death and discord to keep the people in their place.
Ekoi(South Nigeria):
In the beginning there were two gods, Obassi Osaw and Obassi Nsi. The two gods created everything together. Then Obassi Osaw decided to live in the sky and Obassi Nsi decided to live on the earth. The god in the sky gives light and moisture, but also brings drought and storms. The god of the earth nurtures, and takes the people back to him when they die. One day long ago Obassi Osaw made a man and a woman, and placed them upon the earth. They knew nothing so Obassi Nsi taught them about planting and hunting to get food.
Wak was the creator god who lived in the clouds. He kept the vault of the heavens at a distance from the earth and covered it with stars. He was a benefactor and did not punish. When the earth was flat Wak asked man to make his own coffin, and when man did this Wak shut him up in it and pushed it into the ground. For seven years he made fire rain down and the mountains were formed. Then Wak unearthed the coffin and man sprang forth, alive. Man tired of living alone, so Wak took some of his blood, and after four days, the blood became a woman whom the man married. They had 30 children, but the man was ashamed of having so many so he hid 15 of them. Wak then made those hidden children into animals and demons.
In the beginning there was nothing but Nzame. This god is really three: Nzame, Mebere, and Nkwa. It was the Nzame part of the god that created the universe and the earth, and brought life to it. Whle the three parts of Nzame were admiring this creation, it was decided to create a ruler for the earth. So was created the elephant, the leopard, and the monkey, but it was decided that something better had to be created. Between the three of them they made a new creature in their image, and called him Fam (power), and told him to rule the earth. Before long, Fam grew arrogant, he mistreated the animals and stopped worshipping Nzame. Nzame, angered, brought forth thunder and lightning and destroyed everything that was, except Fam, who had been promised immortality. Nzame, in his three aspects, decided to renew the earth and try again. He applied a new layer of earth to the planet, and a tree grew upon it. The tree dropped seeds which grew into more trees. Leaves that dropped from them into the water became fish, those that dropped on land became animals. The old parched earth still lies below this new one, and if one digs deep enough it can be found in the form of coal. Nzame made a new man, one who would know death, and called him Sekume. Sekume fashioned a woman, Mbongwe, from a tree. These people were made with both Gnoul (body) and Nissim (soul). Nissim gives life to Gnoul. When Gnoul dies, Nissim lives on. They produced many children and prospered.
Maori created the first man, Mwuetsi, who became the moon. Maori gave him a ngona horn filled with ngona oil and told him he would live at the bottom of the waters. Mwuetsi objected and said he wished to live on the land. Maori reluctantly agreed, but said Mwuetsi would give up immortality if he did. After a while Mwuetsi complained of loneliness, so Maori sent him a woman, Massassi (the morning star), to keep him company for two years. Each night they slept on opposite sides of a campfire, until one night Mwuetsi jumped over the flame and touched Massassi with a finger he had moistened with the ngona oil. In the moning Massassi was huge, and soon gave birth to plants and trees until the whole earth was covered by them. At the end of two years Maori took Massassi away. Mwuetsi wept for eight years, at which time Maori sent him another woman, Morongo (the evening star), saying that she could stay for two years. On the first night Mwuetsi touched her with his oiled finger, but she said she was different than Massassi, and that they would have to oil their loins and have intercourse. This they did, this night, and every night thereafter. Every morning Morongo gave birth to the animals of creation. Then she gave birth to human boys and girls, who became full-grown by that very same evening. Maori voiced his disleasure with a fierce storm, and told Mwuetsi he was hastening his death with all this procreation. Morongo, ever the temptress, instructed Mwuetsi to build a door to their habitat so that Maori could not see what they were doing. He did this, and again they slept together. Now in the morning Morongo gave birth to violent animals; snakes, scorpions, lions, etc. One night Morongo told Mwuetsi to have intercourse with his daughters, which he did, thereby fathering the human race.
In the beginning was only the sky above, water and marshland below. The chief god Olorun ruled the sky, and the goddess Olokun ruled what was below. Obatala, another god, reflected upon this situation, then went to Olorun for permission to create dry land for all kinds of living creatures to inhabit. He was given permission, so he sought advice from Orunmila, oldest son of Olorun and the god of prophecy. He was told he would need a gold chain long enough to reach below, a snail's shell filled with sand, a white hen, a black cat, and a palm nut, all of which he was to carry in a bag. All the gods contributed what gold they had, and Orunmila supplied the articles for the bag. When all was ready, Obatala hung the chain from a corner of the sky, placed the bag over his shoulder, and started the downward climb. When he reached the end of the chain he saw he still had some distance to go. From above he heard Orunmila instruct him to pour the sand from the snail's shell, and to immediately release the white hen. He did as he was told, whereupon the hen landing on the sand began scratching and scattering it about. Wherever the sand landed it formed dry land, the bigger piles becoming hills and the smaller piles valleys. Obatala jumped to a hill and named the place Ife. The dry land now extended as far as he could see. He dug a hole, planted the palm nut, and saw it grow to maturity in a flash. The mature palm tree dropped more palm nuts on the ground, each of which grew immediately to maturity and repeated the process. Obatala settled down with the cat for company. Many months passed, and he grew bored with his routine. He decided to create beings like himself to keep him company. He dug into the sand and soon found clay with which to mold figures like himself and started on his task, but he soon grew tired and decided to take a break. He made wine from a nearby palm tree, and drank bowl after bowl. Not realizing he was drunk, Obatala returned to his task of fashioning the new beings; because of his condition he fashioned many imperfect figures. Without realizing this, he called out to Olorun to breathe life into his creatures. The next day he realized what he had done and swore never to drink again, and to take care of those who were deformed, thus becoming Protector of the Deformed. The new people built huts as Obatala had done and soon Ife prospered and became a city. All the other gods were happy with what Obatala had done, and visited the land often, except for Olokun, the ruler of all below the sky.
Modimo was the creator. He distributed good things, appeared in the east and belonged to the element water. At the same time he was a destroyer, a terrifying creature responsible for drought, hail, cyclones and earthquakes. When these things happened he appeared in the west and was part of the element fire. Modimo was also sky and light, earth and root. He was unique and singular. He had no ancestors, no past or future. He pervaded the whole of creation. His name was taboo and could be spoken only by priests and seers.
The Ancient One, known as Unkulunkulu, is the Zulu creator. He came from the reeds (uthlanga, means source) and from them he brought forth the people and the cattle. He created everything that is: mountains,streams, snakes, etc. He taught the Zulu how to hunt, how to make fire, and how to grow food. He is considered to be the First Man and is in everything that he created.


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Hair Of The Ancient Egyptians

Some mummies had their hair loosely wrapped and hence left wooly when mummified, but many had it in braids or loose when wrapped in mummification. These later mummies now appear to have straight-wavy brown hair. How is this so if the Kemetic people were of the Afrakan race? Below is the scientific answer as to why we shouldn't think any more of it than when we see chemicals alter the appearance of Black people's hair today.

This is an excerpt from an article entitled "Egyptology: Hanging in the Hair" and written by Anu M'Bantu and Fari Supia in the West Africa Magazine, 2001:

...The cross-section of a hair shaft is measured with an instrument called a trichometer. From this you can get measurements for the minimum and maximum diameter of a hair The minimum measurement is then divided by the maximum and then multiplied by a hundred. This produces an index. A survey of the scientific literature produces the following breakdown:

San, Southern African 55.00
Zulu, Southern African 55.00
Sub-Saharan Africa 60.00
Tasmanian (Black) 64.70
Australian (Black) 68.00
Western European 71.20
Asian Indian 73.00
Navajo American 77.00
Chinese 82.60

In the early 1970s, the Czech anthropologist Eugen Strouhal examined pre-dynastic Egyptian skulls at Cambridge University. He sent some samples of the hair to the Institute of Anthropology at Charles University, Prague, to be analyzed. The hair samples were described as varying in texture from "wavy" to "curly" and in colour from "light brown" to "black". Strouhal summarized the results of the analysis:

"The outline of the cross-sections of the hairs was flattened, with indices ranging from 35 to 65. These peculiarities also show the Negroid inference among the Badarians (pre-dynastic Egyptians)."

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Ammut (also known as Ammit and Ahemait)was a creature which dwelled in the Hall of Ma'at awaiting the judgement of the deceased that passed through there. Those souls who were found unworthy to dwell in the Afterlife were devoured by her. The process of judgement involved the weighing of the deceased person's heart against the feather of Ma'at. If the heart (the seat of the soul, according to the ancient Egyptians) was found to be heavy with sin and impurities and did not balance with the feather, Ammut would devour them.The goddess was depicted with the head of a crocodile, the torso of a wild cat, and the hindquarters of a hippopotamus. However, she also took human form.


Original author: Nubian
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Serqet (Selket, Serket, Selqet, Selkit, Selkis) was a benevolent scorpion goddess. She was generally viewed as a protective goddess, but also had her darker side. Serqet was thought to have power over venomous snakes and scorpions, like Meretseger and Aset. It was thought that she could protect a person from venomous bites, and also that she could send snakes and scorpions to meet out punishment to those of whom she disapproved. She was originally worshiped in the Delta, but her popularity spread throughout the land and cult centres were established at Djeba (Edfu) and Per-Serqet (Pselkis, el Dakka). However, no temples specifically dedicated to her has been recovered.


Original author: Nubian
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Iabet (Iabtet, Iab, Abet, Abtet, Ab) was the goddess of the Eastern Desert, of fertility and rebirth. She was a personification of the land of the east and was known as Khentet-Iabet (Khentet-abet), 'Before the East'. She was believed to wash the god Re, and was linked to the rising of the sun in the east.


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Nekhbet (Nekhebet, Nechbet) was the predynastic vulture goddess who was originally a goddess of a city, but grew to become patron of Upper Egypt, a guardian of mothers and children, and one of the nebty (the 'two ladies') of the pharaoh. "She of Nekhb", named after the town Nekhb (El Kab) was a local goddess who, with the rise of the pharaohs, became the great goddess of all of Upper Egypt, while the other 'lady', Uatchet (Uatch-Ura, Wadjet), became goddess of Lower Egypt. These two goddesses were linked closely together due to the Egyptian idea of duality - there must be a goddess for both of the Two Lands. Nekhbet became Upper Egypt (the south) personified.

Original author: Nubian
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Shay was the personification of the concept of fate or destiny in ancient Egypt. His name means "that which is ordained" but is also related to the word "shay" meaning "extent" or "amount". Although genrally "fate" was deemed to be male, there was also a female version of this god known as "shait".
The egyptians believed that Shai determined the length of each persons life and was born with each person at their birth and remained at their side until they faced their final judgement before Asar in the underworld (the duat). He was an ambivalent deity who could protect or damn a person as he offered a true account of each life in the Hall of Judgement. Even the gods and the pharaohs were in the hands of fate.

Original author: Nubian
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