11. 27. 03:51h
1. The Spanish occupation by the Moors began in 711 AD when an African army, under their leader Tariq ibn-Ziyad, crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from northern Africa and invaded the Iberian peninsula ‘Andalus' (Spain under the Visigoths). 2. A European scholar sympathetic to the Spaniards remembered the conquest in this way: a. [T]he reins of their (Moors) horses were as fire, their faces black as pitch, their eyes shone like burning candles, their horses were swift as leopards and the riders fiercer than a wolf in a sheepfold at night . . . The noble Goths [the German rulers of Spain to whom Roderick belonged] were broken in an hour, quicker than tongue can tell. Oh luckless Spain! [i] [i] Quoted in Edward Scobie, The Moors and Portugal's Global Expansion, in Golden Age of the Moor, ed Ivan Van Sertima, US, Transaction Publishers, 1992, p.336 3. The Moors, who ruled Spain for 800 years, introduced new scientific techniques to Europe, such as an astrolabe, a device for measuring the position of the stars and planets. Scientific progress in Astronomy, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, Geography and Philosophy flourished in Moorish Spain 4. Basil Davidson, one of the most noted historians recognized and declared that there were no lands at that time (the eighth century) "more admired by its neighbours, or more comfortable to live in, than a rich African civilization which took shape in Spain" 5. At its height, Córdova, the heart of Moorish territory in Spain, was the most modern city in Europe. The streets were well-paved, with raised sidewalks for pedestrians. During the night, ten miles of streets were well illuminated by lamps. (This was hundreds of years before there was a paved street in Paris or a street lamp in London.) Cordova had 900 public baths - we are told that a poor Moor would go without bread rather than soap! 6. The Great Mosque of Córdoba (La Mezquita) is still one of the architectural wonders of the world in spite of later Spanish disfigurements. Its low scarlet and gold roof, supported by 1,000 columns of marble, jasper and and porphyry, was lit by thousands of brass and silver lamps which burned perfumed oil. 7. Education was universal in Moorish Spain, available to all, while in Christian Europe ninety-nine percent of the population were illiterate, and even kings could neither read nor write. At that time, Europe had only two universities, the Moors had seventeen great universities! These were located in Almeria, Cordova, Granada, Juen, Malaga, Seville, and Toledo. 8. In the tenth and eleventh centuries, public libraries in Europe were non-existent, while Moorish Spain could boast of more than seventy, of which the one in Cordova housed six hundred thousand manuscripts. 9. Over 4,000 Arabic words and Arabic-derived phrases have been absorbed into the Spanish language. Words beginning with "al," for example, are derived from Arabic. Arabic words such as algebra, alcohol, chemistry, nadir, alkaline, and cipher entered the language. Even words such as checkmate, influenza, typhoon, orange, and cable can be traced back to Arabic origins. 10. The most significant Moorish musician was known as Ziryab (the Blackbird) who arrived in Spain in 822. The Moors introduced earliest versions of several instruments, including the Lute or el oud, the guitar or kithara and the Lyre. Ziryab changed the style of eating by breaking meals into separate courses beginning with soup and ending with desserts. 11. The #Moors introduced paper to Europe and Arabic numerals, which replaced the clumsy Roman system. 12. The Moors introduced many new crops including the orange, lemon, peach, apricot, fig, sugar cane, dates, ginger and pomegranate as well as saffron, sugar cane, cotton, silk and rice which remain some of Spain's main products today. 13. The Moorish rulers lived in sumptuous palaces, while the monarchs of Germany, France, and England dwelt in big barns, with no windows and no chimneys, and with only a hole in the roof for the exit of smoke. One such Moorish palace ‘Alhambra' (literally "the red one") in Granada is one of Spain's architectural masterpieces. Alhambra was the seat of Muslim rulers from the 13th century to the end of the 15th century. The Alhambra is a UNESCO World Heritage Site 14. It was through Africa that the new knowledge of China, India, and Arabia reached Europe The #Moors brought the Compass from China into Europe. 15. The Moors ruled and occupied Lisbon (named "Lashbuna" by the Moors) and the rest of the country until well into the twelfth century. They were finally defeated and driven out by the forces of King Alfonso Henriques. The scene of this battle was the Castelo de Sao Jorge or the 'Castle of St. George.'
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11. 27. 19:05h
How exactly did the Africans and the Chinese mix and were there Blacks in China as well? Yes there were indeed Blacks in ancient China. The skeletal remains from southern China are predominately Negroid. The people practiced single burials which is an African ritual. In northern China the blacks founded many civilizations. The three major empires of China were the Xia Dynasty (c.2205-1766 B.C), Shang/ Yin Dynasty (c.1700-1050 B.C) and the Zhou Dynasty. The Zhou dynasty was the first dynasty founded by the Mongoloid people in China called Hua (Who-aa). The founders of Xia and Shang came from the Fertile African Crescent by way of Iran. Chinese civilization began along the Yellow river . The culture hero Huang Di is a direct link of Africa. His name was pronounced in old Chinese Yuhai Huandi or "Hu Nak Kunte." He was supposed to have arrived in China from the west in 2282 B.C., and settled along the banks of the Loh River in Shanxi. The Africans or blacks that founded civilization in China were often called Li Min "black headed people" by the Zhou dynasts. This term has affinity to the Sumero-Akkadian term Sag-Gig-Ga "Black Headed People". These Li Min are associated with the Chinese cultural hero Yao. Evidence of Chinese writing first appears around 2000 B.C. as pottery marks. The shell-and-bone characters represented writing they were not pictures but wedges similar to African Cuneiform. The identification of the first hero of China, Hu Nak Kunte as a member of the Kunte clan of the Manding speakers of Africa is supported by the close relationship between the Manding languages and Chinese. Black Shang explained further....... There were two Shang empires. The first Shang Dynasty was the Shang-Li (Black Shang) it was ruled by the Li-Qiang "Black Qiang" that was falsely portrayed in the Disney movie 'Mulan.' For the last 273 years of the Shang empire the capital was situated at Anyang. Both the ancient Chinese and Africans had similar naming practices. As in Africa the Shang child had both a day name and regular name. The Shang child was named according to the days of the sun, on which he was born. There were ten days in each sun. These days are called the ten celestial signs. In the Mulberry Tree tradition one day ten suns rose from a mulberry and the Archer Yi, shot down nine of them. These suns in reality were birds. This bird myth refers to the "black birds" that founded the Shang Dynasty. The fact that only one of the ten birds survived the arrows of the Archer Yi, may relate to the unification of the ten clans into the Shang dynasty. Shangs speaking Dravidian? The Dravidian speakers originally came from Nubia. They were related to the C-Group people. The Shang culture was founded by the Kushites thus the name Yi "Great Bowmen", thus corresponding to Steu, the name for the founders of Ta-Seti the first monarchy in history. The Yi seem to have lived in both north and south China. The founders of Xia are usually referred to as Yueh, as opposed to Yi. It would appear that most of Yi were Dravidian speakers while the Yueh were Manding speakers. The first Shang king was Xuan Wang, 'Black King' (Xuan means black). He was also called the Xuan Di ,"Black Emperor". The founder of the Shang Dynasty was called Xuan Niao "Black Bird"; another Shang king was called Xuan Mu "Black Oxen". Sources: African Exposed Truths The Black Episodes before Colonialism The African Empires of China African Civilizations Diop Facebook:Memnon Uzan
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11. 29. 15:18h
Sudanese conical pyramid tombs during the Islamic Era of Dongola. Even as we adopted foreign religions, we maintained our own traditions. These below date to the 14th-century ce. Such conical pyramids are still characteristic of Sudanese elite mausoleums.
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11. 30. 01:43h
Angelo Soliman, 1729-1796 belonged to the Kanuri ethnic group. His original name, Mmadi Make, is linked to a princely class in the Sokoto State in modern Nigeria. A man of remarkable intelligence, intelligence that won his freedom.He spoke six languages fluently and could write three of them fluently as well.He was also a master swordsman, war hero, chess specialist, navigation expert, concert composer, and a tutor to royalty. He was the subject of Mozart’s popular opera The Magic Flute. Soliman was considered one of the most learned people of his generation. During his lifetime Soliman was regarded as a model of the assimilation and perfectibility of Africans. Mozart was a Big fan of His and The character Bassa Selim in Mozart's opera The Abduction from the Seraglio was based on Soliman. Eventually becoming the Grand Master of that lodge, Soliman helped change its ritual to include scholarly elements. This new Masonic direction rapidly influenced Freemasonic practice throughout Europe.
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11. 30. 12:43h
Today in History, November 29th, 1781, The Zong Massacre On November 29th, 1781 the crew of the slave ship Zong threw 142 Afrikan slaves overboard, including women and children. When the ship ran out of water following a navigational mistake, the captain and crew decided to throw the cargo of slaves overboard and claim the loss on their insurance policy.
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08. 13. 19:38h
A Nigerian postgraduate student of Creative Technology at Middlesex University, United Kingdom, has emerged first place winner in the British Council’s Enterprise Challenge competition. Nasir Yammama, who is an indigene of Katsina state, won the U.K. leg of the competition, out of over 2,000 contestants, with his invention of a farming support application that can help farmers with information about weather and how to take care of their farmlands. - See more at: https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/164255-nigerian-wins-uk-innovation-prize-mentorship-with-richard-branson-2.html#sthash.QcVMcAQw.dpuf
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08. 13. 20:26h
The Lukasa memory board Central to Luba artistry is the lukasa, a seemingly simple but extraordinarily sophisticated device that aids memory and the making of histories. Stools, staffs, figures, and complex choreographies complement the lukasa as Luba culture is remembered, produced, and transformed. Lukasa memory boards are hourglass-shaped wooden tablets that are covered with multicolored beads, shells and bits of metal, or are incised or embossed with carved symbols. The colors and configurations of beads or ideograms serve to stimulate the recollection of important people, places, things, relationships and events as court historians narrate the origins of Luba authority. A lukasa serves as an archive for the topographical and chronological mapping of political histories and other data sets. The Baluba creation story makes a connection between God’s invisibility or unavailability, and the endowment of humans with a soul or divine component longing for God. In the creation story, Kabezya-Mpungu decides to become invisible after creating the world and the first humans who did not yet have a heart. After balancing the rain, sun, moon, and darkness, he leaves. To replace the visible god, he sends the people Mutshima (“heart”), the life-giving or divine part of humans. "I don’t want that humans will see me any more. I return into myself and send Mutshima…Then Kabeza-Mpungu disappeared. Thereafter, the heart appeared, in a small, hand-sized vessel. The heart cried and turned towards Sun, Moon, Darkness and Rain: "Kabezya-Mpungu, our father, where is he!" "Father is gone, we don’t know the way he went". "Oh how much I am longing to see him" the heart replied, "to talk to him. Since I cannot find him, I will enter into this man. So I will wander from generation to generation". Ultimately, long-distance trade destroyed the kingdom of Luba. In the 1870s and 1880s, traders from East Africa began searching for slaves and ivory in the savannahs of central Africa. Tempted by the lure of quick profits, warriors began raiding the empire for slaves, beginning the rapid destruction of the Luba Kingdom. In 1899, the empire was split in two by a succession dispute, ending the empire as a unified state. #HistoryOfAfrica
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08. 15. 15:56h
You will not find their faces on CNN, because they do not want us to know in Palestine and Israel the people oppressed by Zionism look just like us, because some of them are US. But that is not why we stand with them. We stand on the right side of history because our humanity demands it. www.themotherland.info
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08. 15. 16:34h
Lovely picture
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08. 21. 23:41h
This is a wall in Osun Oshogbo in Osun State (Western) Nigeria. Did you see the Yin and Yang symbol and other Egyptian signs and symbols? Don't let the eurocentric books mislead you no more that the Egyptians that built the pyramids were non-blacks or aliens. I personally had seen this piece of ancient written system before but, then I thought it was just a piece of beautiful art design not knowing there were deep meaning behind all these stuffs. The first pyramid were built by the Nubians in present day Sudan before migration all over Africa. Peace, Love and Light. Source: Alabi Ayodele
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08. 23. 04:29h
Samuel Layinka Ayodeji Manuwa, KT, CMG, OBE (1903–1976) The man who invented an excision knife to treat tropical ulcers. was a pioneering Nigerian surgeon, Inspector General of Medical Services and former Chief Medical Adviser to the Federal Government of Nigeria. He was the first Nigerian to pass the FRCS . and he graduated from the University of Edinburgh in 1934. In 1966, he was elected president of the World Federation for Mental Health. During his lifetime he served as a Nigerian aristocrat, holding the chieftaincy titles of the Obadugba of the Ondo clan, the Olowa Luwagboye of the Ijebu clan and the Iyasere of the Iteba Lineage, all of the south-western region of the country. As Inspector General of Medical Services, he contributed immensely to the establishment of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, the first medical school in Nigeria, he later became a pro-chancellor and chairman of the governing council at the University of Ibadan. Throughout his career, he sought and worked for the improvement of basic heath services in the rural areas of Nigeria. Read More: http://www.reunionblackfamily.com/apps/blog/show/14438771-sir-samuel-layinka-ayodeji-manuwa-1903-1976-the-man-who-invented-an-excision-knife-to-treat-tropical-ulcers
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08. 23. 04:45h
The inventor of the Cellular phone is Henry Sampson, Jr. Sampson is an African-American from Jackson , Mississippi . He attended Morehouse College and transferred to Purdue. He received an MS in Engineering from the University Of California. He was awarded an MS in Nuclear Engineering from Illinois and his Ph.D from Illinois . Sampson is the first African-American to receive a Ph.D in Nuclear Engineering.In 1971 Sampson was awarded a patent for the "gamma-electric cell." This technology was used in the cellular phone. Red more: http://www.reunionblackfamily.com/apps/blog/show/18504293-the-inventor-of-the-cellular-phone-is-henry-sampson
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08. 23. 05:17h
Tenkamenin King of Ancient Ghana (1037-1075 AD) Through careful management of gold trade across the Sahara, Tenkamenin’s empire flourished economically yet his greatest strength was in government. He listened to his people and provided justice for all of them. His principles of democratic monarchy and religious tolerance make him one of the great models of African rule.
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08. 25. 06:50h
The true size of Africa
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08. 25. 20:30h
test
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08. 25. 23:55h
Lovely Map Source: Memnon TeZe Uzan
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08. 27. 00:49h
In the Yoruba language "ibeji" literally means "twins". Read more on wiki: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibeji
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08. 27. 00:51h
n the religion of the Yoruba people, Obàtálá is the creator of human bodies, which were supposedly brought to life by Olorun's breath. Obàtálá is also the owner of all ori or heads. Any orisha may lay claim to an individual, but until that individual is initiated into the priesthood of that orisha, Obàtálá still owns that head. This stems from the belief that the soul resides in the head. Read more on wiki : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obatala
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08. 27. 00:53h
n Yoruba mythology, Ọba or Obbá is the Orisha of the River Ọba, whose source lies near Igbon, where her worship originates.[1] During the wars of the 19th century, her centers of worship moved to the more secure town Ogbomosho.[2] She is traditionally identified as the first wife of Shango (the third king of the Oyo Empire and the Orisha of thunder and lightning) and to have fallen victim to one of her scheming junior co-wives. Oba was tricked by Oya or Oshun into cutting off her ear and trying to feed it to Shango.[3] Read more on Wiki : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oba_%28goddess%29
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08. 27. 00:56h
Ori is a metaphysical concept important to Yoruba spirituality and philosophy. Ori, literally meaning "head," refers to one's spiritual intuition and destiny. It is the reflective spark of human consciousness embedded into the human essence, and therefore is often personified as an Orisha in its own right . In Yoruba tradition, it is believed that human beings are able to heal themselves both spiritually and physically by working with the Orishas to achieve a balanced character, or iwa-pele. When one has a balanced character, one obtains an alignment with one's Ori or divine self. Alignment with one's Ori brings, to the person who obtains it, inner peace and satistaction with life. To come to know the Ori is, essentially, to come to know oneself. The primacy of individual identity is best captured in a Yoruba proverb: "Ori la ba bo, a ba f'orisa sile". When translated, this becomes It is the inner self we ought to venerate, and let divinity be.
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08. 27. 00:59h
Oshun, or Ochun (pronounced [ɔʃún]) in the Yoruba religion, is an Orisha who reigns over love, intimacy, beauty, wealth and diplomacy. She is worshiped also in Brazilian Candomblé Ketu, with the name spelled Oxum. She should not be confused, however, with a different Orisha of a similar name spelled "Osun," who is the protector of the Ori, or our heads and inner souls. Ochun relates mostly to woman but also man. Ọṣhun is beneficent, generous and very kind. She does, however, have a horrific temper, one which she seldom ever loses. When she does, it causes untold destruction. Oshun is said to have gone to a drum festival one day and to have fallen in love with the king-dancer Shango, god of lightning & thunder. Since that day, Shango has been married to Oba, Oya, and Oshun, though Oshun is said to be considered his principal wife. Read More: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oshun
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08. 27. 01:03h
In the Yorùbá religion, Ṣàngó (also spelled Sango, Shango; often known as Xangô or Changó in Latin America and the Caribbean; and also known as Jakuta[1]) (from '=shan, 'to strike') is perhaps one of the most popular Orisha; also known as the god of fire, lightning and thunder. Shango is historically a royal ancestor of the Yoruba as he was the third king of the Oyo Kingdom prior to his posthumous deification. In the Lukumí (Olokun mi = "my dear one") religion of the Caribbean, Shango is considered the center point of the religion as he represents the Oyo people of West Africa, the symbolic ancestors of the adherents of the faith. All the major initiation ceremonies (as performed in Cuba, Trinidad, Puerto Rico and Venezuela for the last few hundred years) are based on the traditional Shango ceremony of Ancient Oyo. This ceremony survived the Middle Passage and is considered to be the most complete to have arrived on Western shores. This variation of the Yoruba initiation ceremony became the basis of all Orisha initiations in the West. Read More: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shango
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08. 27. 01:05h
Oxossi (also Oshosi, Ochosi, Ososi, Oxosi, or Osawsi) is both the Orisha of the hunt and the forest and is one of the three warrior orishas referred to as the "Ebora" in the Yoruba religion. He is a hunter and his role is often a solitary figure in the wilderness, which lends him another role as a shaman. He is also connected with all hunter communities, and is often depicted as a friend or ally of both the caboclos and the nature spirits of the forests of Brazil. He is also associated to Abundance, of food and energy. His festivities often include a lot of fruit in show of that connection. Oshosi is most important to the people of Brazil in Candomblé (a Latin American religion derived from the traditional spiritual practices of the Yoruba people of West Africa), as the Amazon Rainforest brings this element of him to the fore[citation needed] in Candomblé more than in its cousins, the island religions of Cuban Santeria and Haitian Voudoun. During the period in which the majority of the orisha venerators in Latin America were slaves to Catholic Europeans, Oshosi came to be identified with Saint Sebastian in the Rio de Janeiro area of Brazil. San Sebatian is most often shown in representations tied and shot full of arrows, which led to his association with the hunter orisha. He is alternately depicted as Saint George in the Bahia region, and in Cuba, he is identified with Saint Norbert. Oshosi is the patron of justice and the hunt. As a master of all air attacks, he is prayed to when devotees are looking for swift justice from above. They also come to him in search of other things, a job or house for example. He is the patron of those who work with animals, dogs in particular, and is quite often supplicated when a wrong is done to an animal without cause.
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08. 27. 01:12h
Olòrún is the Yorùbá name given to one of the three manifestations of the Supreme God in the Yoruba pantheon. Olorun is the owner of the heavens and is commonly associated with the Sun. The vital energy of Olorun manifests in humans as Ashé, which is the life force that runs through all living things.[1] The Supreme God has three manifestations: Olodumare, the Creator; Olorun, ruler of the heavens; and Olofi, who is the conduit between Orun (Heaven) and Ayé (Earth). No gender is typically assigned to Olorun because Olorun transcends human limitations. Olorun rules Orun (the Heavens), whereas humans live in Ayé (the Earth). Typically, humans do not interact directly with Olorun but they receive the life-giving energy from the sun and recognize the power of Olorun over their lives. Read More : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olorun
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08. 27. 01:14h
n Yoruba mythology, Oshunmare is a divine serpent connected to the Orixa Oxumare. Oxumare (O Shoo Mah Ray) is the serpent which is believed to create the rainbow,[1] both male and female, and is a symbol of creation, human procreation and the link between the world of the mundane and that of the ancestors.[1] Oxumare is also one of the Orixa that can change sex. Some Orixa such as Oxossi have a path of the opposite sex (i.e. La Penya). Oxumare is male in some parts of the year and female in the other. In some Houses, Oxumare spends half the year with a male top and female bottom, and half with a female top and male bottom. Damballah Wedo is Oxumare's counterpart among the Fon based Lwa of the Vodoun religion. Like Damballah Wedo, Oxumare is a rainbow serpent. He/She is the messenger from Olodumare. This idea is more a part of worship in the Americas than it is in West Africa.[2] Among the African Yoruba, Olodumare (God) is essentially unreachable. Thus the Orixa. They are our intermediaries and helpers, because Olodumare has more important things to do than worry about the lives of humans. Oxumare is something of an exception to that generality. Oxumare brings messages to us directly from Olodumare. As such He/She is very important for our welfare. Read More: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxumar%C3%A9
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08. 27. 01:17h
Erinle, also known as Inle or Eyinle, is an Orisha in the Yoruba religion of West Africa. According to the patakis or stories of the faith of the Lukumi derivative of the religion, he is a hunter. As a spirit of abundance, he is believed to serve as both a healer and the patron of gay people. He is said to live in the forest with his brothers Ogun, Ochossi and Osanyin for part of the time. The rest is spent in the farm with Orisha Oko. Usually depicted as being associated with both Yemaya and Otin, he has also been shown to co-habit with Osun in her river. The Erinle River, a tributary of the Osun River takes his name. Finally, he is regarded as the patron and spiritual guardian of Ilobu.
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08. 27. 01:22h
In the religious system of Orisha worship, Babalú-Ayé is the praise name of the spirit of the Earth and strongly associated with infectious disease, and healing. He is an Orisha, representing the deity Olorun on Earth. The name Babalú-Ayé translates as “Father, lord of the Earth” [1] and points to the authority this orisha exercises on all things earthly, including the body, wealth, and physical possessions. In West Africa, he was strongly associated with epidemics of smallpox, but in the contemporary Americas, he is more commonly thought of as the patron of leprosy, influenza, and AIDS.Although strongly associated with illness and disease, Babalú-Ayé is also the deity that cures these ailments. Both feared and loved, Babalú-Ayé is sometimes referred to as the “Wrath of the supreme god” because he punishes people for their transgressions.People hold Babalú-Ayé in great respect and avoid calling his actual name, because they do not wish to invoke epidemics. His worship is widely associated with the Earth itself, and his shrines are often separated from commonly travelled areas. His ritual tools include a ritual broom for purification, a covered terra-cotta vessel, and abundant cowry shells.Usually considered hobbled by disease, he universally takes grains as offerings. Read More: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babalu_Aye
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08. 27. 01:24h
Yoruba herbalists and Ifa divination priests enlist the aid of Osanyin, the god of divination or herbal medicines, or Opa Erinle, in their work against mental and physical illness caused by malevolent forces and individuals. The Yoruba believe the power of Osanyin is vested in a wrought iron staff, called an Osanyin Staff, that is placed on altars to this orisa. Typically measuring between eighteen and fifty inches in height, the staff is composed of a circle of small birds and a shaft in the middle that elevates a large bird above smaller ones. Babatunde Lawal suggests that the reason for this division could be to suggest the relaying of metaphysical powers from the celestial to the terrestrial realm. Lawal evokes the Yoruba reference to Osanyin as "The one who sees everything, like Olodumare," allowing him a vantage point from which he can protect all of humanity below. The birds, emissaries of Ogun, the god of iron and war, refers to the herbalist's understanding of and power over these malevolent people. There are typically sixteen birds, invoking the most sacred number of divination, surrounding and confronting the central bird, which represents the smallpox god. The birds on Osanyin staffs suggest an iconographic link with the birds on Obas' crowns.
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08. 27. 01:26h
In the Yoruba religion, Orunmila is the Orisha of wisdom, knowledge and divination worshiped principally in West Africa, Cuba, Brazil and the United States. This source of knowledge is believed to have a keen understanding of the human form and of purity, praised as being often more effective than other remedies; his followers and priests are known as Babalawo. Among West Africans, Orunmila is recognized as a primordial Irunmole that was present both at the beginning of Creation and then again amongst them as a priest that taught an advanced form of spiritual knowledge and ethics, during visits to earth in physical form or through his disciples. In Yoruba mythology, Orunmila is the spirit of wisdom among the Irunmole and the divinity of destiny and prophecy. He is "Ibikeji Olodumare" (second in command to Olodumare and "eleri ipin" (witness of fate). Orunmila is also referred to as Agbonniregun, the embodiment of knowledge and wisdom of Ifá. In the Santeria/Lukumi diaspora in present-day Cuba, Orunmila is known as Orula & Orunla which are not as commonly used in Africa. Orunmila is also known as Ifá and is referred to by that name in a number of Ifá verses, though some claim Ifá only refers to the method of divination. It was also Orunmila who carried Ifá (the wisdom of Olodumare) to Earth. Priests of Ifá are called babalawo (elder of the confraternity) or Iyanifa (female Ifá priest). Orunmila is considered a sage, recognizing that Olodumare placed Ori (intuitive knowledge) as prime Orisha. It is Ori who can intercede and affect the reality of a person much closer than any Orisa. For this reason it is important to consult with the Babalawo to know one's direction and the wish of one's Ori. Read More : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orunmila
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08. 27. 01:29h
In Yoruba mythology, Ọya (Alternative spellings: Oiá, Iansã, Iansan), is the Undergoddess of the Niger River. Ọya has been syncretized in Santería with the Catholic images of the Virgin of Candelaria. She is seen in aspects as the warrior-spirit of the wind, lightning, fertility, fire, and magic. She creates hurricanes and tornadoes, and guards the underworld.[1] She is the spirit of tornadoes (which are said to be her whirling skirts as she dances), lightning, and any kind of destruction. Beyond destruction, Ọya is the spirit of change, transition, and the chaos that often brings it about. She owns the marketplace, as the Yorubas have a saying "Life is a Marketplace and our true house is in heaven". She is also the giver of life. She lives at the gates of cemeteries (as opposed to the entire underworld), which reveals her in her aspect as the facilitator of transition. Ọya, when danced, often has a horse tail. Her clothes have all the colors but black. She has a face expression of really big and open eyes, and she breathes and blows up her chins, and often screams. Ọya's close association with the passage from life into death also means she is one of the few Orishas which are worshiped alongside the Egun ancestors, whose cult is most often distinct from that of the Orishas. The reason she is worshiped with Egungun is because the Egungun are her children. In the stories of the faith, she can transform herself into a water buffalo. One of her preferred offerings is the eggplant. Read More: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oya
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08. 27. 01:31h
Yemanja is an orisha, originally of the Yoruba religion, who has become prominent in many Afro-American religions. Yoruba people, from what is now called Yorubaland, brought Yemaya/Yemoja and a host of other deities/energy forces in nature with them when they were brought to the shores of the Americas as captives. She is the ocean, the essence of motherhood, and a fierce protector of children. Read More: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yemaja
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08. 27. 05:02h
Solomon was, according to the Book of Kings, the Book of Chronicles, Hidden Words and the Qur'an a king of Israel and the son of David.The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BC. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, and the final king before the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah split. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. King Solomon by photographer James C. Lewis
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08. 27. 05:07h
Elijah was a prophet in Israel in the 9th century BCE, mentioned in several holy books. Elias is the Greek equivalent. Prophet Elijah by photographer James C. Lewis
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08. 27. 05:12h
Elisha is a prophet and a wonder-worker mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, the Quran, the Ginza Rba and Bahá'í writings.
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08. 27. 05:16h
Gabriel is a messenger angel or an archangel. by photographer James C. Lewis
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08. 27. 05:20h
David was the Bible, the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah, and according to the New Testament Gospels of Matthew and Luke, an ancestor of Jesus. His life is conventionally dated to c. 1040–970 BC, his reign over Judah c. 1010–1002 BC, and his reign over the United Kingdom c. 1002–970 BC. by photographer James C. Lewis
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08. 27. 05:23h
Thutmose III (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis III, Thothmes in older history works, and meaning "Thoth is born") was the sixth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. During the first twenty-two years of Thutmose's reign he was co-regent with his stepmother and aunt, Hatshepsut, who was named the pharaoh. While he was shown first on surviving monuments, both were assigned the usual royal names and insignia and neither is given any obvious seniority over the other.[3] He served as the head of her armies. by photographer James C. Lewis
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08. 27. 05:27h
Rebecca (also spelled Rebekah) (Hebrew: רִבְקָה, Modern Rivká Tiberian Riḇqā ISO 259-3 Ribqa, from the Hebrew ribhqeh (lit., "connection"), from Semitic root r-b-q, "to tie, couple or join", "to secure", or "to snare") appears in the Hebrew Bible as the wife of Isaac and the mother of Jacob and Esau. Rebecca and Isaac were one of the four couples believed to be buried in the Cave of the Patriarchs, the other three being Adam and Eve, Abraham and Sarah, and Jacob and Leah. By photographer James C. Lewis
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08. 27. 05:39h
Samuel literally meaning "Name of God" in Hebrew, is a leader of ancient Israel in the Books of Samuel in the Hebrew Bible. He is also known as a prophet and is mentioned in the second chapter of the Qur'an, although not by name. His status, as viewed by rabbinical literature, is that he was the last of the Hebrew Judges and the first of the major prophets who began to prophesy inside the Land of Israel. He was thus at the cusp between two eras. According to the text of the Books of Samuel, he also anointed the first two kings of the Kingdom of Israel: Saul and David. By photographer James C. Lewis
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08. 27. 05:44h
Saint Peter died c. 64 AD[1]), also known as Simon Peter, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Church. The Roman Catholic Church considers him to be the first pope, ordained by Jesus in the "Rock of My Church" dialogue in Matthew 16:18. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a major saint and associate him with the foundation of the church in Rome, but differ about the authority of his successors in present-day Christianity. By photographer James C. Lewis
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08. 27. 05:53h
Queen Vashti (Hebrew: ושתי‎, Koine Greek: Αστιν Astin) is the first wife of Persian King Ahasuerus in the Book of Esther, a book included in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and read on the Jewish holiday of Purim. She is banished for her refusal to appear at the king's banquet, and Esther is chosen to succeed her as queen. In the Midrash, Vashti is described as wicked and vain. She is viewed as an independent-minded heroine in feminist interpretations of the Purim story. By photographer James C. Lewis
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08. 27. 05:55h
Jeremiah meaning "Yah Exalts", also called the "Weeping prophet",was one of the major prophets of the Hebrew Bible. Jeremiah is traditionally credited with authoring the Book of Jeremiah, 1 Kings, 2 Kings and the Book of Lamentations, with the assistance and under the editorship of Baruch ben Neriah, his scribe and disciple. Judaism considers the Book of Jeremiah part of its canon, and regards Jeremiah as the second of the major prophets. Islam considers Jeremiah a prophet, and he is listed as a major prophet in Ibn Kathir's canonical collection of Annals of the Prophets. Christianity also regards Jeremiah as a prophet and he is quoted in the New Testament. It has been interpreted that Jeremiah "spiritualized and individualized religion and insisted upon the primacy of the individual's relationship with God. By photographer James C. Lewis
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08. 27. 06:05h
James, son of Zebedee (Greek Ἰάκωβος, from Hebrew/Aramaic Yaʿqob; died 44 AD) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, and traditionally considered the first apostle to be martyred. He was a son of Zebedee and Salome, and brother of John the Apostle. He is also called James the Greater or James the Great to distinguish him from James, son of Alphaeus. James the Greater is the patron saint of Spain. By James C. Lewis
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08. 29. 05:48h
According to the Bible people could not tell the difference between the ancient Egyptians and the Israelites by appearance.
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08. 29. 05:49h
According to the Bible people could not tell the difference between the ancient Egyptians and the Israelites by appearance.
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08. 29. 05:53h
According to the Bible people could not tell the difference between the ancient Egyptians and the Israelites by appearance.
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08. 29. 05:54h
According to the Bible people could not tell the difference between the ancient Egyptians and the Israelites by appearance.
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08. 29. 05:54h
According to the Bible people could not tell the difference between the ancient Egyptians and the Israelites by appearance.
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08. 29. 05:55h
According to the Bible people could not tell the difference between the ancient Egyptians and the Israelites by appearance.
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08. 29. 05:56h
According to the Bible people could not tell the difference between the ancient Egyptians and the Israelites by appearance.
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08. 29. 05:57h
According to the Bible people could not tell the difference between the ancient Egyptians and the Israelites by appearance.
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08. 29. 05:58h
According to the Bible people could not tell the difference between the ancient Egyptians and the Israelites by appearance.
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08. 29. 06:07h
According to the Bible people could not tell the difference between the ancient Egyptians and the Israelites by appearance.
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08. 29. 06:11h
According to the Bible people could not tell the difference between the ancient Egyptians and the Israelites by appearance.
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08. 29. 07:30h
Brilliant comparison
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08. 29. 08:01h
Don't believe the myth that Africa did not have a written history. Roughly 1 million manuscripts were found in Timbuktu Mali, covering all the fields of human knowledge: law, the sciences, medicine, etc.
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08. 29. 09:45h
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08. 29. 20:35h
A big question is how many deaths we have to have to wake up and realize that the current world political leaders are a bunch of incompetent who only see their monetary interest. They have to think and to think like help humanity, but will be losers. Una gran pregunta es cuantos muertos tendremos que contar para despertar y comprender que los lideres politicos mundiales actuales son una bola de incapaces que solo ven su interes monetario. Tienen que pensar y ayudar a pensar como Humanidad, si no seran fracasados. Alvaro Sevilla
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08. 29. 20:38h
Now humanity is learning that Africa, if are being decimated by Ebola, are declaring more than 20,000 cases and this epidemic are in the oil zone of Nigeria. With the 60/70% of fatal cases can project that the consequences will be terrible without proven vaccines, we measure the time it takes to get to America, Europe or Asia, because we have no idea how many deaths may have much less few survivors will be able to have. The plague is unleashed, it holds once again what was already predicted, but is met by the imbecility and stupidity of the human being who is currently with incompetent Political Leader, Religious and Leader Financial, the latter are the main moron, because you will not have customers who sell your money. Ahora la humanidad esta enterandose que Africa, si esta siendo diezmada por el Ebola, estan declarando mas de 20 mil casos y esta la epidemia en la zona petrolera de Nigeria. Con el 60/70% de casos mortales podemos proyectar que las consecuencias seran terribles y sin vacunas probadas, midamos el tiempo que tarda en llegar a America, Europa o Asia, porque no tendremos idea de cuantos muertos se podran contar y mucho menos cuantos sobrevivientes podran haber. La peste esta desatada, se cumple una vez mas lo que ya estaba pronosticado, pero se cumple por la imbecilidad y estupidez del ser humano que esta actualmente como Lider Politico, Lider Religioso y Lider Financiero, este ultimo estan imbecil que no tendra clientes a quien vender su dinero. Alvaro Sevilla
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08. 29. 20:41h
Now humanity is learning that Africa, if are being decimated by Ebola, are declaring more than 20,000 cases and this epidemic are in the oil zone of Nigeria. With the 60/70% of fatal cases can project that the consequences will be terrible without proven vaccines, we measure the time it takes to get to America, Europe or Asia, because we have no idea how many deaths may have much less few survivors will be able to have. The plague is unleashed, it holds once again what was already predicted, but is met by the imbecility and stupidity of the human being who is currently with incompetent Political Leader, Religious and Leader Financial, the latter are the main moron, because you will not have customers who sell your money. Alvaro Sevila
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08. 29. 20:43h
Now humanity is learning that Africa, if are being decimated by Ebola, are declaring more than 20,000 cases and this epidemic are in the oil zone of Nigeria. With the 60/70% of fatal cases can project that the consequences will be terrible without proven vaccines, we measure the time it takes to get to America, Europe or Asia, because we have no idea how many deaths may have much less few survivors will be able to have. The plague is unleashed, it holds once again what was already predicted, but is met by the imbecility and stupidity of the human being who is currently with incompetent Political Leader, Religious and Leader Financial, the latter are the main moron, because you will not have customers who sell your money.
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08. 29. 20:45h
cil que no tendra clientes a quien vender su dinero. Now humanity is learning that Africa, if are being decimated by Ebola, are declaring more than 20,000 cases and this epidemic are in the oil zone of Nigeria. With the 60/70% of fatal cases can project that the consequences will be terrible without proven vaccines, we measure the time it takes to get to America, Europe or Asia, because we have no idea how many deaths may have much less few survivors will be able to have. The plague is unleashed, it holds once again what was already predicted, but is met by the imbecility and stupidity of the human being who is currently with incompetent Political Leader, Religious and Leader Financial, the latter are the main moron, because you will not have customers who sell your money.
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08. 29. 20:46h
cil que no tendra clientes a quien vender su dinero. Now humanity is learning that Africa, if are being decimated by Ebola, are declaring more than 20,000 cases and this epidemic are in the oil zone of Nigeria. With the 60/70% of fatal cases can project that the consequences will be terrible without proven vaccines, we measure the time it takes to get to America, Europe or Asia, because we have no idea how many deaths may have much less few survivors will be able to have. The plague is unleashed, it holds once again what was already predicted, but is met by the imbecility and stupidity of the human being who is currently with incompetent Political Leader, Religious and Leader Financial, the latter are the main moron, because you will not have customers who sell your money. Alvaro Sevilla
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08. 30. 03:10h
illustration showing King Sunni Ali Ber the founder of the Songhai Empire, one of the largest African empires in history in the 15th century AD.
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08. 30. 03:12h
illustration showing king Mansa Musa I mansa, meaning "king of kings", of the Malian Empire. in the 14th century AD King Mansa Musa I (Emperor Moses) was an important Malian king, ruling from 1312 to 1337 and expanding the Mali influence over the Niger city-states of Timbuktu, Gao, and Djenne. Musa ruled the Mali Empire and was estimated to have been worth the equivalent of $400 billion in today’s currency, which makes him the richest man to ever walk this earth. The emperor was a master businessman and economist, and gained his wealth through Mali’s supply of gold, salt and ivory, the main commodities for most of the world during that time. Musa maintained a huge army that kept peace and policed the trade routes for his businesses. His armies pushed the borders of Mali from the Atlantic coast in the west; beyond the cities of Timbuktu and Gao in the east; and from the salt mines of Taghaza in the north to the gold mines of Wangar in the south. Musa was also a major influence on the University of Timbuktu, the world’s first university and the major learning institution for not just of Africa but the world. Timbuktu became a meeting place of poets, scholars and artists of Africa and the Middle East. Even after Mali declined, Timbuktu remained the major learning center of Africa for many years.
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08. 30. 03:16h
Mwana Ngana Ndumba Tembo—Ruler of the Angolan Tchokwe (1840-1880 circa) Artist: Kenneth Calvert (1950-) Ndumbo Tembo maintained the Tchokwe sovereignty and protected its resources by securing an autonomous territory that severely restricted European access. Ndumba Tembo’s work allowed the Tchokwe to retain their independence.
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08. 30. 03:19h
Shamba Bolongongo African King of Peace (1600-1620) Artist: Roy LaGrone (1921-1993) Hailed as one of the greatest monarchs of the Congo, King Shamba had no greater desire than to preserve peace. Shamba was also known for promoting arts and crafts, and for designing a complex and extremely democratic form of government, which represented all Bushongo people.
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08. 30. 03:20h
Benhanzin Hossu Bowelle—The King Shark (1841-1906) Artist: Thomas Blackshear II Benhanzin was the most powerful ruler in West Africa at the end of the 19th century. To defend his nation’s sovereignty, he maintained a physically fit army. He was a lover of the humanities and is credited with the creation of some of the finest songs and poetry of Dahomey.
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08. 30. 03:22h
Cleopatra VII Queen of Egypt (69-30 BC) Artist: Ann Marshall The most famous of seven matriarchs to bear this name, Cleopatra rose to the throne at seventeen. In a quest to elevate Egypt to world supremacy, she enlisted two Roman leaders—Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. Neither fulfilled her dreams before their own deaths prompting Cleopatra to take her own life.
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08. 30. 03:23h
Yaa Asantewa Queen of Ghana (1863-1923) Artist: Barbara Higgins Bond Queen Mother Yaa Asantewa led her nation in the last Ashanti war against the British. Her name will always be remembered because of her agitation, the return of Prempeh was converted into stirring demands for independence.
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08. 30. 03:25h
Moshoeshoe King of Batsutoland (circa 1786-1870) Artist: Jerry Pinkney (1939-) Moshoeshoe ruled the country he founded for half a century. He was a wise and just king brilliant in diplomacy and battle. He united many diverse groups into a stable society with law and order. He knew that peace made prosperity possible and often avoided conflict through skillful negotiations.
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08. 30. 03:27h
Samory Toure The Black Napoleon of the Sudan (1830-1900) Artist: Ezra Tucker When Samory Toure’s native Bissandugu was attacked and his mother taken captive, he was allowed to take her place. He then escaped and joined the army of King Bitike Souane of Torona. He was soon made king and defied French expansionism in Africa, earning the name “The Black Napoleon of the Sudan.”
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08. 30. 03:29h
Nehanda of Zimbabwe (1862-1898) Artist: Lydia Thompson (1960-) Nehanda was one of Zimbabwe’s youngest and most influential religious leaders. She declared war when the English invaded their country. She was captured and executed for ordering the killing of a cruel Native Commander. She remains the single most important person in the modern history of Zimbabwe. —
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08. 30. 03:29h
Nandi Queen of Zululand (1778-1826 AD) Artist: HM Rahsaan Fort II (1950-) Married to the King of Zululand, Nandi gave him a son, Shaka but was banished because the king’s other wives were jealous. Nandi made many sacrifices for her son and raised Shaka as royalty. He later became the greatest of all Zulu kings. Today Zulu people use her name to refer to a woman of high esteem. —
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08. 30. 03:34h
Tiye The Nubian Queen of Egypt changed the course of history. Amenhotep III, the young Egyptian ruler was so taken by her beauty and intellect he defied his nation’s priests and customs by proclaiming her the commoner his Great Royal spouse. He included her in political and military decisions and treated her as his equal.
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08. 30. 03:42h
He was the first ruler in recorded history to believe in the concept of the One God. Akhenaton built the finest city in the desert where he lived with his wife, Queen Nefertiti. They changed Egyptian culture so radically that their impact was felt for centuries.
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08. 30. 03:43h
Makeda was married to King Solomon of Israel and was known for giving him great gifts from her famed journey to visit the Judean monarch. She also gave him a son, Menelek who looked so much like his grandfather that Solomon rechristened him and renamed him David after his father King David. Debra Edgerton (1958-)
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08. 30. 03:46h
Thutmose III Pharaoh of Egypt (753-712 BC) Antonio Wade (1962-) Thutmose was known for giving those he conquered the choice to join his kingdom. For the first time in history the entire Nile Valley, from the Mediterranean to the borders of modern Ethiopia, was united under one monarch. By 743 BC the majority of the Egyptians looked upon Thutmose as the ruler of Egypt and Kush.
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08. 30. 03:51h
Hannibal Ruler of Carthage (247-183 BC) Charles Lilly (1949-) Regarded as one of the greatest generals of all time, Hannibal and his army conquered major portions of Spain and Italy, while coming close to defeating the Roman Empire. For more than 2000 years Hannibal has been recognized for destroying a much larger Roman force while seemingly being trapped.
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08. 30. 04:05h
Nefertari Nubian Queen of Egypt (192-1225 BC) Steve Clay (1944-) Nefertari is heralded as the queen who wed for peace. While her marriage to King Rameses II of Egypt began as a political move to share powers, it grew into one of the greatest royal love affairs in history and ended the 100-year war between Nubia and Egypt.
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08. 30. 04:08h
Tenkamenin King of Ghana (1037-1075 AD) Alexander Bostic (1955-) Through careful management of gold trade across the Sahara, Tenkamenin’s empire flourished economically yet his greatest strength was in government. He listened to his people and provided justice for all of them. His principles of democratic monarchy and religious tolerance make him one of the great models of African rule.
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08. 30. 04:14h
Affonso I King of the Kongo (circa 1486-1543) Carl Owens (1929-2002) Affonso I was a visionary who saw his country as a unified Christian nation equipped with advanced knowledge and technology. He encouraged Christianity, made it possible to practice new skills in masonry, carpentry and agriculture. He established a modern school system and was the first ruler to resist slave trade.
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08. 30. 04:16h
Idris Alooma Sultan of Bornu (1580-1617) Idris Alooma was a devout Moslem. He replaced tribal law with Moslem law, and made a pilgrimage to Mecca. The trip provided religious and military significance, for he returned with Turkish firearms. After building a strong army Idris Alooma conquered the Bulala, establishing a dominion and peace that lasted fifty years. Idris reformed and standardised the judiciary by establishing a system of Islamic courts. He himself ruled according to Islamic political theory, taking a stand against, among other things, immorality in the capital. Oliver and Atmore wrote that: “[H]e presided over a court famous for the high standard of its legal and theological disputations”. Like his Songhai contemporaries, he was a patron of learning, encouraging scholars from many other African countries to take up residence in Borno. He improved navigation on the Yobe River. He commissioned the building of longer, flat-bottomed boats initially for his navy. For land transportation, he imported a much greater number of camels replacing the dependence on mules, oxen and donkeys. The great Mai was also a builder, raising new brick mosques in the cities that replaced the older buildings. He also founded a hostel in Mecca for Borno pilgrims. Following the fall of Songhai in 1591, the great Mai became the undisputed champion of the Muslims in the region. The empire became the Borno Caliphate. Phillip Koslow, a modern historian, declared that: “His contemporary, Elizabeth I of England, a shrewd and strong-willed monarch who gave her name to an age and has been repeatedly celebrated in books and films, could hardly have claimed greater achievements in war, administration or diplomacy.”
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08. 30. 04:19h
Nzingha—Amazon Queen of Matambo (1582-1663) Dorothy Carter Nzingha was an astute diplomat and excellent military leader. After settling disputes and waging long wars, Nzingha allied her nation with the Dutch, marking the first African-European alliance against a European oppressor.
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08. 30. 04:21h
Shamba Bolongongo African King of Peace (1600-1620) Roy LaGrone (1921-1993) Hailed as one of the greatest monarchs of the Congo, King Shamba had no greater desire than to preserve peace. Shamba was also known for promoting arts and crafts, and for designing a complex and extremely democratic form of government, which represented all Bushongo people.
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08. 30. 04:22h
Osei Tutu King of Asante (circa 1650-1717) Alfred Smith (1949-) Osei Tutu was the founder and first ruler of the Asante nation, a great West African kingdom now known as Ghana. He tripled the geographic size of Asante and the kingdom was a significant power that endured for two centuries.
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08. 30. 04:25h
Shaka-King of the Zulus (1787-1828) Paul Collins (1936) A strong leader and military innovator, Shaka is noted for revolutionizing 19th century Bantu warfare. Over the years Shaka’s troops earned such a reputation that many enemies would flee at the sight of them. The Shaka’s nation now encompasses the present day Kwazwu-Natal, South Africa.
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08. 30. 04:27h
Khama III The Good King of Bechuanaland (1819-1923) Carl Owens (1929-2002) Khama was highly regarded as a peace-loving ruler intent on technological advancements including building schools, scientific cattle-feeding and the introduction of a mounted police force, which practically eliminated crime. England honored him with approval to remain free from Bechuanaland.
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08. 30. 04:29h
Ja Ja King of the Opobo (1821-1891) Jonathan Knight (1959-) After escaping slavery Ja Ja prospered as an independent trader. He became chief of his people and eventually king of his own territory, Opobo. Ja Ja fiercely resisted outside influence which led to his exile at age 70 to the West Indies by the British. He never saw his kingdom again.
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08. 30. 04:33h
Menelek II King of Kings of Abyssinia (1844-1913) Dow Miller (1933-1993) Menelek joined together several independent kingdoms that were often at odds with each other into one strong stable empire known as the United States of Abyssinia (Ethiopia). A stunning victory over Italy in the Battle of Adwa in defense of his own country placed him among the great world leaders in history.
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09. 11. 07:19h
The Mount of Temptation is said to be the hill in the Judaean Desert where Jesus was tempted by the devil (Matthew 4:8). The exact location is unknown and impossible to determine. It is generally identified with Mount Quarantania, a mountain approximately 366 metres (1,201 ft) high, located about 11 km (6.8 mi) northwest of the West Bank town of Jericho. According to the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia, Quarantania is "a limestone peak on the road from Jerusalem to Jericho".
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09. 15. 21:34h
King Saul: According to the Hebrew Bible, Saul (/sɔːl/; Hebrew: שָׁאוּל, Šāʼûl ; "asked for, prayed for"; Greek: Σαούλ Saoul; Latin: Saul; Arabic: طالوت‎, Ṭālūt) (circa 1082 BC – 1010 BC) was the first king of a united Kingdom of Israel and Judah. He was anointed by the prophet Samuel and reigned from Gibeah. He fell on his sword to avoid capture in the battle against the Philistines at Mount Gilboa, during which three of his sons were also killed. The succession to his throne was contested by Ish-bosheth, his only surviving son, and his son-in-law David, who eventually prevailed.
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09. 15. 21:40h
Jezebel (/ˈdʒɛzəbəl/,[1] Hebrew: אִיזֶבֶל / אִיזָבֶל, Modern Izével / Izável Tiberian ʾÎzéḇel / ʾÎzāḇel) (fl. 9th century BCE) was a princess, identified in the Hebrew Book of Kings as the daughter of Ethbaal, King of Tyre (Phoenicia) and the wife of Ahab, king of northern Israel. According to the biblical accounts, Jezebel incited her husband King Ahab to abandon the worship of Yahweh and encourage worship of the deities Baal and Asherah instead. Jezebel is said to have persecuted the prophets of Yahweh, and to have fabricated false evidence of blasphemy against an innocent landowner who refused to sell his property to King Ahab, causing the landowner to be put to death. For these transgressions against the God and people of Israel, the Bible relates, Jezebel met a gruesome death - thrown out of a window by members of her own court retinue, and the flesh of her corpse eaten by stray dogs. Jezebel became associated with false prophets. In some interpretations, her dressing in finery and putting on makeup before her death led to the association of the use of cosmetics with "painted women" or prostitutes. According to Israel Finkelstein, professor of archaeology at Tel Aviv University, apart from the names of rulers and some of the buildings and battles mentioned, the Biblical stories of Jezebel and her family contain "very little verifiable historical material"
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09. 15. 21:44h
Moses: according to the Hebrew Bible, a former Egyptian prince later turned prophet, religious leader and lawgiver, to whom the authorship of the Torah is traditionally attributed. Also called Moshe Rabbenu in Hebrew (מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ, Lit. "Moses our Teacher/Rabbi"), he is the most important prophet in Judaism. He is also an important prophet in Christianity and Islam, as well as a number of other faiths.
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09. 15. 22:00h
The Hebrews were neither Africoid nor Europoid. In their own words they called Africoids Hamitic and Europoids Japhethic. They considered themselves "Semetic." Though the term is made up and unscientific, it was based on the recognition of a racial type that had manifested in West Asia by the time of Israel's development around 1000 bce. This racial type consisted of descendants from the Caspian Basin that migrated into West Asia in great numbers around 2000 bce, such as the Aryans. The Hebrews represent the Caspian-Aryan migrants that went to Canaan/Palestine. There was undoubtedly mixture with the local Afro-Dravidian population, but this mixture was limited in scope. As the Hebrew's Torah explains, mixture with the Canaanites was looked down upon. They considered the Canaanites sons of Ham (the Africoid), a family that they claim also included Mizraim (Egyptians/Kemetics), Cush (Sudanese), Put (East Africans), and Nimrod (southern Mesopotamians). The only reason some Caspian-Aryans speak so-called Afro-asiatic languages ( a mythical category to begin with) is because they adopted the language of the Afro-Dravidian in the early period before domination. That is a linguistic shift, not a racial one. This is no different than the fact that you speak a European language as your first language yet are not racially European. As you can see, these real Hebrew descendants below are neither Africoids nor Europoids, but a distinct Caspian-based race. Neither the Ethiopian Falasha nor Eastern European Askanazi are remotely pure Hebrews. Many of you, clinging to hold on to your master's religion, will try and see these people as Africoids. You can, but trust me, they don't see themselves as members of the Africoid race which they claimed were cursed sons of Ham, destined to be the slave of Shem and Japheth. Love yourself and stop trying to include an ethnic group that doesn't want to be included with you. We don't need to include Hebrews to have a great history, their entire religion is just a corruption of diluted Kushite-Kemetic philosophy mixed in with the oral history of the Caspian-Aryan's invasion of the Afro-Dravidian race. Hotep. Source Facebook: Kushite-Kemetic Spiritual Science
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09. 22. 17:05h
The Olmecs came from Nuwba in Central Africa and they migrated to America in which they named in their Cushite language, ‘Utla’, which means, “vacate.” When the Olmecs discovered that there was actually a North Utla and a South Utla, the word ‘Utla’ became plural which became ‘Atlan’, which is where the word ‘Atlantis’ came from. The Olmecs were of a tribe in Africa called ‘Dogon’ in Mali. When the Dogons migrated to America they also imported the rubber tree which is only indigenous to Africa. The Dogons used the sap from the tree to make shoes, coats, capes, and they were the first to introduce the soles on shoes to the New World. The name ‘Olmec’ means “Rubber People.” The rubber was also used to make large balls for Olmeccan ball game ceremonies, which was played in large stone arenas. When Christopher Columbus arrived in the west he states that he saw the natives kicking around a large ball that was made from a type of Acacia. Columbus took some of these trees and balls back to Spain with him. Today, soccer is the favorite national sport in Spain! These Olmecs set up empires and cities that pre-dates even the Inca, Aztec, and Mayans. The Olmecs were not Siberians. The Olmecs were dark skinned, big lips and wide nosed Africans just as they are portrayed in the stone heads. Lets Look at the Clear Distinctions 1. The step pyramid of the KMT Egyptians closely resembles the step pyramid in America. 2. The Double Crown of Lower and Upper Egypt with the bird and the serpent is also found in Olmec culture with Upper and Lower Egypt being North America and South America. 3. The Mexicans have four calendars. The fourth calendar is identical to the Egyptian calendar. 4. In Mexico, there was found a type of paper made from wood pulp that scientist say can only be found in Egypt. 5. The ceremonial dance of the Hopi Indians is identical to the Dogon’s Bado dance of Africa, using the same symbols and spirit names. 6. Various tribes as the Osage and Apache uses the crescent moon symbol which is the national symbol of Angola, Mauritania, Tunisia, Sahara and Algeria, all in Africa Sources: The African Truth Exposed History of the Dogon The African Holocaust America Before Columbus Holocaust They Came before Columbus Source Facebook: Memnon TeZe Uzan
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09. 23. 19:02h
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09. 29. 10:16h
The truth was that Rome was a multi-ethnic Empire. Any true scholar with the slightest mastery of classics will attest to this. Any one who has had to write a thesis on Rome in at the Doctoral level would not contest this truth. Read more: http://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/were-the-ancient-romans-white-not-on-your-life-by-oguejiofo-annu/
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10. 03. 12:27h
The devotion of Eurocentrics and Arabcentrics to take away any achievement of West Afrikans comes to light when we examine West Afrikan adobe architecture. An ancient architectural form, known famously through the great mosques of Timbuktu and Djenne, they are based on indigenous designs that predate the mosques. However, due to Leo Africanus (one of the earlier scholars for White Supremacy), the myth has been perpetuated that a man from Southern Spain named al-Sahili was hired by Mansa Musa to be the grand architect to build palaces and mosques in Mali that gave birth to the entire West African adobe architectural style! This lie has been repeated so often that it has become fact to most fast-food historians. Thanks to Nigerian scholar Susan Aradeon, graduate of Columbia University and Ahmed Bello University, the truth has finally been exposed that al-Sahili was a North African poet who did live in Mali at the time of Mansa Musa, but that there's no evidence he was even an architect. The famous chronicles of Ibn Battuta, who knew of al-Sahili, note him and everything about Medieval Mali, yet made not one mention of al-Sahili as an architect of anything. Aradeon and other scholars also not that the Malian designs do not reflect any influence from Spain but show more similarity to adobe architectural styles of Niger and Sudan. The attribution of a Southern Spaniard named al-Sahili with the title of inventor of West African architecture was easily believed and perpetuated by Europeans and Arabs who often seek to explain a foreign source to any West African sign of genius. (below is a medieval mosque in Timbuktu, Mali. West Africa)
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10. 07. 14:05h
The small country of burkina faso near the border to ghana may not have many resources or economic wealth, but with the plentiful raw materials available the kassena people make some of the most culturally rich and architecturally beautiful villages, such as this one in tiébélé, built using traditional gurunsi vernacular. the dwellings occupy a community of just over one hectare in area, and are made of a sun-dried mix of clay, soil,straw and cow droppings moistened to a perfect mortar, mixed by foot to create strong pottery-like structures. these techniques actually preceded the well known mud-brick constructions of indigenous peoples in the area. layer upon layer are added when needed, maintaining the necessary wall thickness to withstand rainstorms and extreme temperatures. short walls are used as urban landscaping elements, provide a buttressing support,and offer supplementary places to sit or work.
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10. 07. 19:00h
Regarding the Kemetic Refugees that migrated to inner Africa, we have to understand it consisted largely of the vast Royal Family and their millions of loyals. It is widely known that the last indigenous pharaoh, Nectenabo, found refuge with a prince's family in Kush. Considering that the pharaohship was a divine position with followers who consider him appointed by the Supreme Being, we have to know that his loyal entourage accompanied him. Because of his spiritual leadership as God's representative on Earth, we have to understand he had millions of followers loyal to him (Keep in mind that Kemet's population at the time was like the China of its day). Preceding every major wave of Kemetic refugees, was the expulsion of Kemetic royal leaders and the priesthood. This is important because the people who left Kemet were not mostly working class. The invaders came for power, land, wealth, authority, why would the invaders want to expel powerless people and servants? Makes no sense. They primarily expelled the royal and upper class because these were the people who had the positions and wealth that the invaders wanted. If anything, the ones that would benefit from staying were the poor that the invaders coerced and sometimes intermixed with to work against the indigenous leaders. Those who believe different have not studied history's art of settler-colonialism. This is the standard mode of usurpation in every case in history. Every one. Kill or expel the leaders, use the poor underprivileged who are in need of "opportunity" to create a native link to the masses. There might be a few corrupt leaders that the invaders will keep in order to interact with the masses, but it will only be a few. They cannot risk having so many former leaders remain in leadership positions. Many Africans misunderstand the nature of Kemet's colonization because most modern colonization in Africa is exploitation-colonialism and not settler-colonalism, which is a different process and might leave more local leaders with secondary power. Even South Africa is not fully settler-colonialism because so many Africans remain the majority throughout its history. Kemet's settler-colonization was much more like that of the English in North America: total eradication of the indigenous (especially the leaders) and rapid importation of Europoids. Similarly, it did not happen overnight, but took a few centuries. Source: Kushite-Kemetic Spiritual Science
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10. 12. 19:16h
The original civilization of Southern Iran was a Black race called Elam. They were related to the development of Black civilization in the Southern Mesopotamian region such as Sumeria. They were an Afro-Dravidian people (a mixture of Africanoid and Dravidiod) that resisted the immigration of the Beige race from the Caspian Basin that increased after 2000 bc. The Elamites made their last major impact with the establishment of the Achaemenid Empire in the mid 6th-century bc. This empire took control of all of West Asia, but also colonized India and Kemet. It is important that we see that these Achaemenids were a Black race. The relief pictured below represents the Achaemenid nobility in Susa during their great empire. It is presently in the Berlin Museum. The Achaemenids were the last Black power in West Asia; after their fall in 330 bc the population of West Asia was dominated by Beige people. Because the Elamite-Achaemenid lived in what is now Iran, they are often referred to as Persians, but in actually they are not. The Persians are not indigenous to Southern Iran but belong to the hairy Beige race from the Caspian Basin that slowly gained power in Northeast Iran (near Afghanistan) after the Greek defeat of the Achaemenids in 330 bc. Their land was called Parthia. The Beige Parthians expelled the Greeks from Iran in 247 bc and established the first non-Black "Persia/Parthia." The following centuries saw the slow but eventual lightening of the Iranian population to what it is today. Because these Beige Persians controlled most of West Asia (the rest being under Roman dominion), this is the period that the formerly Black population of Arabia became beige. This occured under the Greek and then Parthian domination of West Asia (including Arabia) that began in 330 bc, nearly 1,000 years before Islam. Source Facebook: Kushite-Kemetic Spiritual Science
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10. 14. 19:57h
Boy with plait (ozondato and ondengura neckband,Himba, Namibia, Africa
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10. 15. 10:11h
Interesting Myth or Fact
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10. 15. 17:13h
Kimbande Ganguellas
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10. 16. 16:53h
I didn't realize until recently that a lot of you see the long hair in the Kemetic art and assume that it is long straight-wavy hair being depicted. This is hardly ever the case. In daily life, the Kemetic women wore their thick wooly hair in braids or twists. On occasions, they would undue the braids, which would leave the appearance of long tight mini-curls. Sisters do the same thing today. Because of the complex detail needed to depict this type of hair in art, Kemetic art often showed just the outline of hair (especially in painting) or a few lines to show the falling of braids. However, when they wanted to really show their artistic skill, they would go into high detail and show intricate design of long wooly curls. As you can see, carving wooly hair into wood or stone is extremely detailed and time consuming and so it was not always shown but suggested in the thick shape of the hair and often at the bottom of the hair. Long straight-wavy hair was not commonplace in Kemet. Sometimes, when short, curly hair may look like it is straight-wavy, but when it grows out it shows the thick wooly texture. Straight hair would have been considered unusual because thick wooly to curly hair was the dominate texture. Source Facebook: Kushite-Kemetic Spiritual Science
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10. 19. 23:45h
East Africa was a major trading partner of Kemet. "Punt" was a term used to designate East Africa in general. It is commonly spelled Punt today, and is transliterated as Pnt, but the Kemetics did not use the Roman alphabet and the choice P instead of B is arbitrarily chosen by Euro-Egyptologists. The more accurate transliteration is Bnt, which would be spelled Bant. With this spelling we can see a better parallel for the other name the Kemetics used for East Africa, Taneter. Taneter means "Land of God." This correlates with Bant which would suggest Ba-Ntr or Ba (Divine Self) Ntr (God). Thus, Bant and Taneter reflect the same meaning which refers to a place of God. The arbitrary misspelling "Punt" is intended to disguise this original significance. Why? Because then we would understand who are the people from Bant: As it is tradition in Kemetic linguistics to refer to people with a "u" following the name (for example, the ancients did not say Kemetic or Kemite, but Kemetu to refer to the people), we can see that the name for East Africa--Bant--became Bantu when referring to the people. In 330 bc, large numbers of Kemetic people took ships to escape the barbarism of the Greek invasion. Since the Greeks were coming from the Mediterranean, the Kemetics took route on the Red Sea all the way to Bant where they established the first Swahili city-states through intermarriage with the local Nilo-Saharan people. The Bantu people are primarily descendants of the indigenous Nilo-Saharan population (such as Masai and Samburu) and Khoisan, mixing in with this mass migration from Kemet into the East African coast that later spread into Central and Southern Africa. The Kemetic Bantu also settled Madagascar. Madagascar was largely empty of human population before 300 bc. As a sea-faring people, the Kemetic Bantu established the renown Swahili civilization, well-known for their role in the Indian Ocean trade. In many ways we can say the Swahili States was a reincarnation of Kemet. It was this trade that kept the Kemetic-Bantu (even after leaving Kemet) engaged in oceanic trade as far away as the East Indies and Southeast Asia. It was due to this trade that Kemetic culture was introduced into the East Indies/Southeast Asia. A small population of Kemetic people settled there to establish civilization. Though they were a very small minority, they were socio-economically dominant and so the leaders of these nations adopted the Kemetyu's root name "Km or Khm" which we know means "Black." This is why we have the Khm (who founded the Khmer civilization that built Angkor Wat) and the Cham (who founded Vietnam's first civilization) and the Chinese family Kim (an early dominate sea-trading family of the Chinese coast). All of these connect to Kemet. It was during this early state of the Swahili's Indian Ocean trade that many Southeast Asian/Austronesian people returned with the Kemetic-Bantu sailors to East Africa between 100 bc and 600 ce. Many of them settled in Madagascar where they mixed in with the Kemetic-Bantu to become the Malagasy people. (below is a modern model of the average Kemetic type ship that initiated the Indian Ocean trade, though there were larger ones for special purposes). Source Facebook: Kushite-Kemetic Spiritual Science
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10. 24. 16:56h
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11. 03. 01:58h
The "tombstone" that is the most common marker of modern cemeteries was an invention of the Ancient Nile. Before this, Europeans primarily practiced cremation. This changed with the emergence of Christianity which borrowed various traditions (such as burying the dead and placing a tombstone in the place). The only difference is that Christian tombstones use a decapitated ankh (which they call "the cross") and removed the images of Black African people worshipping a midnight-Black God named Ausaru. On the Ancient Nile tombstones the African ancestors wrote "I am Ausaru." It was the goal of life to be able to announce this to the world at death. However, the ability to claim that you are Ausaru is not something you can simply say at death; you had to have lived as Ausaru during life to be able to finalize your life with this remark. To say you are Ausaru, as Ra Un Nefer Amen explains, was a eulogy of the way you lived life and the immortality granted through having achieved divinity. (from the Mausoleum of Kha and Merit, 18th-dynasty.) Source: Kushite-Kemetic Spiritual Science
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11. 03. 02:03h
The Mende (Liberian descendants of the Mali Empire) have their own script, popularly referred to as the Vai script (based on the Vai-Mende dialect). It is a syllabic writing system where each character represents a whole syllable and not just one sound (phoneme). The Ethiopic, Mayan, Sumerian, and Japanese scripts also use a syllabic system. The Mende's Vai script is without doubt the original script of the larger Mande language family (which includes Mandekan/Mandingo, Mende, Senufo, Soninke, and sometimes Wolof) before the rise of Islam in the Mali Empire. It is most likely to have thrived between 300 ce and 1300 ce. Between 1300-1500 ce, Arabic superseded the Vai script and it was gradually washed out of the Mali Empire. By 1800 ce, Liberia (which was the southwestern corner of the Mali Empire) was the only place in the former Mali Empire that was not fully Islamic, and so it was the only place still using the Vai script. Liberia and Sierre Leone were the first places that the British & Americans colonized in Africa, using formerly enslaved Africans from the Americas. When the British witnessed the Vai script, in their racism they sought to minimize it. They claimed that it was a recent invention of the 1800s and that it must of come there from Europeanized African Americans who learned it from Europeanized Cherokees who got the idea from European-Americans. Over the course of 150 years of colonialism, they convinced the natives of this nonsense while they simultaneously discouraged the use of Vai. First of all, the Cherokee script looks amazingly like the American's Roman Alphabet and shows no significant relationship to Vai. The designs of the Vai script not only have no resemblance to the Cherokee or Euro alphabet, but the structure confirms that the inspiration for the script do not point to the Cherokee or Euro alphabet either. The only similarity is that both the Vai and Cherokee are syllabic. But, as I mentioned, this is not a unique thing for it occurs in Ethiopic, Mayan, Sumerian, Japanese, and a lot of other unrelated scripts. It is without doubt, that the Vai script is the declining remnant of a once widely used Ancient West African script that dates back to at least 1,000 years and probably closer to 2,000. The script it best resembles is the Meroitic and Kemetic-Hieratic writing systems of the Ancient Nile Valley. Like dozens of other forgotten scripts, it fell into disuse with the dominance of Islam's Arabic script in the Mali, Songhai, and Tukolor Empires.
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11. 07. 13:00h
"When I came to the U.S. I found myself taking on a new identity, or rather I found a new identity thrust on me. I became black. I hadn’t thought of myself as black... I’m very happily black. I don’t have a problem with having skin the color of chocolate. But ... I came to realize that in this country that meant something, it came with baggage. The idea of black achievement was a remarkable thing, whereas in Nigeria it wasn’t." –Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie Read Article http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2014/10/american-blindness-to-the-racism-all-around-us/382152/
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11. 08. 20:31h
2,000 year old tree in South Africa called The Tree of Life. The boabab tree. Some hollowed out trunks have been used to provide shelter to as many as 40 people, it can hold up to 4,500 liters of water, fibers from the bark can be turned into rope and cloth and fresh leaves are often eaten to boost the immune system. The medicinal properties of the boabab fruit are amaze balls: 3 times as much Vitamin C as an orange , 50% more Calcium than spinach, and it has a plentiful source of antioxidants which are disease fighting molecules credited with helping reduce the risk of cancer and heart disease. Beauty of the Motherland
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11. 15. 23:39h
Ma'at is an ancient Kemetic (Egyptian) concept. As used by the Ancient Africans, Ma'at was a concept that stood for "universal order." Ma'at represents realty in all its manifestations both spiritual and material. It is the divine force that encompasses and embraces everything that is alive and exists. As an ethical system, Ma'at is often discussed as seven cardinal virtues (truth, justice, righteousness, harmony, balance, reciprocity, and order). Upcoming documentary Ancestral Voices 2 will explore how this concept is manifested across the various cultures within the continent.
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11. 18. 00:23h
The castle fortress that characterizes Medieval European and Islamic kingdoms was first mastered in Nubia. The oldest known castle in the world is that of Buhen in Nubia. It was purposely flooded by the Arab-European Aswan Dam, intended to submerge all of the ancient temples of Lower Nubia in the 1960s. Thus, the original date of the castle is unclear, but Egyptologists admit that its foundations date to at least 2600 bce while they suggest that the final castle itself dates to at least 1880 bce. They admit that the castle was primarily under the ownership of Kushites, but they suggest that it was initially built by Kemetic people. However, the strong resemblance the castle has to the Kushite castle at Kerma (which still stands, though in ruin) suggests that it was originally built by the Kushites. We will never know, since they flooded the castle to hide the Afrakan origin of such a classic European and Islamic architectural form. The Buhen Castle covered 140,000 square feet! It housed at any time over 3,500 soldiers. It possessed catapults, ramparts, drawbridges, buttresses, cylinder towers, and all other classic features of the castle. In other words, the Europeans and Arabs learned the art of defense and architecture of defense from Africans and used it to dominate us. Let us reclaim our mastery over military power. Source: Kushite-Kemetic Spiritual Science (facebook)
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08. 07. 06:12h
Ancient Greece before the Mongoloid and Caucasoid, had a migration of Africans , Early ,Early Greeks were Dark Skin Africans , in which many fled all over especially in The village of Avato, in the northeastern prefecture of Xanthi, in which is still the home to a unique community whose ancestors are believed to have come to Greece from Sudan....In this time They brought a lot of Combat Forms from Kemet and other regions to Greece and formed the Olympics ,one Sport was Named "Pankration" Pankration is an archaic Greek word that means "total strength" and refers to a combat sport of the ancient Olympiad which was essentially an all-out fight between two contestants. Pankration allowed bare-knuckle boxing, kicking, wrestling, jointlocks, throws, and strangleholds, prohibiting only two tactics: biting and gouging out the opponent's eyes.
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12. 06. 13:13h
The Kebra Nagast , or the Book of the Glory of Kings, is an account written in Ge’ez of the origins of the Solomonic line of the Emperors of Ethiopia. The text, in its existing form, is at least seven hundred years old, and is considered by many Ethiopian Christians and Rastafarians to be an inspired and a reliable account. It retells the stories of much, much earlier Biblical times. Not only does it contain an account of how the Queen of Sheba met Solomon, and about how the Ark of the Covenant came to Ethiopia with Menelik I, but contains an account of the conversion of the Ethiopians from the worship of the sun, moon, and stars to that of the “Lord God”. As explained in the 1967 Schweich Lectures, “The Kebra Nagast is not merely a literary work, but — as the Old Testament to the Hebrews or the Qur’an to the Arabs — it is the repository of Ethiopian national and religious feelings.”
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12. 06. 14:41h
Princess Dorothea of Denmark, a niece of Emperor Charles V Habsburg
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12. 06. 17:30h
The GULLAH/GEECHEE preserved more of their Afrikan cultural heritage than any other group of Afrikan Americans. The English spoken by the enslaved Gullah was greatly influenced by their native languages of the Fante, Ga, Kikongo, Kimbundu, Mandinka, Twi, Ewe, Ibo and Yoruba.
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12. 06. 23:14h
King Njoya of the Bamum people teaches his people Shumom, the writing system he created in 1896, Cameroun.
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12. 07. 02:27h
They came as slaves: human cargo transported on British ships bound for the Americas. They were shipped by the hundreds of thousands and included men, women, and even the youngest of children. Whenever they rebelled or even disobeyed an order, they were punished in the harshest ways. Slave owners would hang their human property by their hands and set their hands or feet on fire as one form of punishment. Some were burned alive and had their heads placed on pikes in the marketplace as a warning to other captives. We don’t really need to go through all of the gory details, do we? We know all too well the atrocities of the African slave trade. But are we talking about African slavery? King James VI and Charles I also led a continued effort to enslave the Irish. Britain’s Oliver Cromwell furthered this practice of dehumanizing one’s next door neighbour. The Irish slave trade began when James VI sold 30,000 Irish prisoners as slaves to the New World. His Proclamation of 1625 required Irish political prisoners be sent overseas and sold to English settlers in the West Indies. By the mid 1600s, the Irish were the main slaves sold to Antigua and Montserrat. At that time, 70% of the total population of Montserrat were Irish slaves. Ireland quickly became the biggest source of human livestock for English merchants. The majority of the early slaves to the New World were actually white. From 1641 to 1652, over 500,000 Irish were killed by the English and another 300,000 were sold as slaves. Ireland’s population fell from about 1,500,000 to 600,000 in one single decade. Families were ripped apart as the British did not allow Irish dads to take their wives and children with them across the Atlantic. This led to a helpless population of homeless women and children. Britain’s solution was to auction them off as well. During the 1650s, over 100,000 Irish children between the ages of 10 and 14 were taken from their parents and sold as slaves in the West Indies, Virginia and New England. In this decade, 52,000 Irish (mostly women and children) were sold to Barbados and Virginia. Another 30,000 Irish men and women were also transported and sold to the highest bidder. In 1656, Cromwell ordered that 2000 Irish children be taken to Jamaica and sold as slaves to English settlers. Many people today will avoid calling the Irish slaves what they truly were: Slaves. They’ll come up with terms like “Indentured Servants” to describe what occurred to the Irish. However, in most cases from the 17th and 18th centuries, Irish slaves were nothing more than human cattle. As an example, the African slave trade was just beginning during this same period. It is well recorded that African slaves, not tainted with the stain of the hated Catholic theology and more expensive to purchase, were often treated far better than their Irish counterparts. African slaves were very expensive during the late 1600s (£50 Sterling). Irish slaves came cheap (no more than £5 Sterling). If a planter whipped, branded or beat an Irish slave to death, it was never a crime. A death was a monetary setback, but far cheaper than killing a more expensive African. The English masters quickly began breeding the Irish women for both their own personal pleasure and for greater profit. Children of slaves were themselves slaves, which increased the size of the master’s free workforce. Even if an Irish woman somehow obtained her freedom, her kids would remain slaves of her master. Thus, Irish mothers, even with this new found emancipation, would seldom abandon their children and would remain in servitude. In time, the English thought of a better way to use these women to increase their market share: The settlers began to breed Irish women and girls (many as young as 12) with African men to produce slaves with a distinct complexion. These new “mulatto” slaves brought a higher price than Irish livestock and, likewise, enabled the settlers to save money rather than purchase new African slaves. This practice of interbreeding Irish females with African men went on for several decades and was so widespread that, in 1681, legislation was passed “forbidding the practice of mating Irish slave women to African slave men for the purpose of producing slaves for sale.” In short, it was stopped only because it interfered with the profits of a large slave transport company. England continued to ship tens of thousands of Irish slaves for more than a century. Records state that, after the 1798 Irish Rebellion, thousands of Irish slaves were sold to both America and Australia. There were horrible abuses of both African and Irish captives. One British ship even dumped 1,302 slaves into the Atlantic Ocean so that the crew would have plenty of food to eat. There is little question the Irish experienced the horrors of slavery as much (if not more, in the 17th Century) as the Africans did. There is also little question that those brown, tanned faces you witness in your travels to the West Indies are very likely a combination of African and Irish ancestry. In 1839, Britain finally decided on it’s own to end its participation in Satan’s highway to hell and stopped transporting slaves. While their decision did not stop pirates from doing what they desired, the new law slowly concluded this chapter of Irish misery. But, if anyone, black or white, believes that slavery was only an African experience, then they’ve got it completely wrong. Irish slavery is a subject worth remembering, not erasing from our memories. But, why is it so seldom discussed? Do the memories of hundreds of thousands of Irish victims not merit more than a mention from an unknown writer? Or is their story to be the one that their English masters intended: To completely disappear as if it never happened. None of the Irish victims ever made it back to their homeland to describe their ordeal. These are the lost slaves; the ones that time and biased history books conveniently forgot. By Peter Thomson
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12. 07. 23:42h
Dohomey was a wealthy West African empire. The elements of Dohomey's success were its trade and its powerful army, whose soldiers were considered invincible. The fierce and mighty Behanzin Bowelle was the king of this great empire. His army contained 25,000 warriors, 5,000 of which were women. The women were the most respected and feared part of Behanzin's army. They ranked above the men. These women were thoroughly trained and kept trim by a system of gymnastics developed by the Dohomians themselves. Recruited from among the healthiest and strongest virgins in Dohomey, these females were sworn to chastity. The king sometimes picked his wives from among them or gave them to his bravest warriors. The training of these women was very rigorous. One of their drills was charging three times barefoot into a construction of thorns, nude to their waist. Another exercise was to kill a maddened bull with their bare hands. Perfect was the discipline of these female warriors. They fought with extreme bravery. Excited by their own courage and undying energy, the women, like the men were thought to be invincible. (Image: Dahomey Amazons The only all-female front-line combat arms military unit in modern history.... this pic is with some men the Amazons was there own unit who destroyed the France invaders)
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12. 08. 13:47h
Thomas Fuller was an African, shipped to America as a slave in 1724. He had remarkable powers of calculation, and late in his life was discovered by antislavery campaigners who used him as a demonstration that blacks are not mentally inferior to whites. Thomas Fuller, familiarly known as the Virginia Calculator, was a native of Africa. At the age of fourteen he was stolen, and sold into slavery in Virginia, where he found himself the property of a planter residing about four miles from Alexandria. He did not understand the art of reading or writing, but by a marvellous faculty was able to perform the most difficult calculations. Dr. Benjamin Rush of Philadelphia, Penn., in a letter addressed to a gentleman residing in Manchester, Eng., says that hearing of the phenomenal mathematical powers of “Negro Tom,” he, in company with other gentlemen passing through Virginia, sent for him. One of the gentlemen asked him how many seconds a man of seventy years, some odd months, weeks, and days, had lived, he gave the exact number in a minute and a half. The gentleman took a pen, and after some figuring told Tom he must be mistaken, as the number was too great. “‘Top, massa!” exclaimed Tom, “you hab left out de leap-years!” And sure enough, on including the leap-years in the calculation, the number given by Tom was correct. “He was visited by William Hartshorn and Samuel Coates,” says Mr. Needles, “of this city (Philadelphia), and gave correct answers to all their questions such as, How many seconds there are in a year and a half? In two minutes he answered 47,304,000. How many seconds in seventy years, seventeen days, twelve hours? In one minute and a half, 2,110,500,800.” That he was a prodigy, no one will question. He was the wonder of the age. The following appeared in several newspapers at the time of his death. Present day thinking is that Fuller learned to calculate in Africa before he was brought to the United States as a slave. Supporting evidence for this comes from a passage written by Thomas Clarkson in 1788 describing the purchase of African slaves: It is astonishing with what facility the African brokers reckon up the exchange of European goods for slaves. One of these brokers has ten slaves to sell , and for each of these he demands ten different articles. He reduces them immediately by the head to bars, coppers, ounces… and immediately strikes the balance. The European, on the other hand, takes his pen, and with great deliberation, and with all the advantage of arithmetic and letters, begin to estimate also. He is so unfortunate, as to make a mistake: but he no sooner errs, than he is detected by this man of inferior capacity, whom he can neither deceive in the name or quality of his goods, nor in the balance of his account. Despite Fuller’s calculating abilities he was never taught to read or write and again this is evidence that he did not learn to calculate while in the United States. When someone who had witnessed his calculating abilities remarked that it was a pity he had not been educated, Fuller replied: ‘It is best I got no learning; for many learned men be great fools.’ - See more at: http://blackthen.com/the-virginia-calculator-thomas-fuller-african-slave-and-mathematical-genius/#sthash.xhpKjf86.dpuf
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12. 09. 12:20h
When people observe the paintings of Kemit (Ancient Egypt) they make assumptions about the origin of people because of the variety of skin colors. Many people have the misconception that pure Africans must have very dark skin like the Mundari woman of South Sudan pictured. The Khoisan people of Southern Africa are the second most ancient people in the world and the Twa people of the Great Lakes region are considered to be the most ancient people on earth, the first people. None of these people are mixed with any people outside of Africa. The original inhabitants of Kemit said they came down the Nile from The Mountains of the Moon. That is Central East Africa on every map.
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12. 09. 13:22h
King Njoya of the Bamum people teaches his people Shumom, the writing system he created in 1896, Cameroun.
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12. 11. 22:02h
"A Moor from Aswan, Egypt, 1910. Few today talk about the remnants of original people of Egypt, who lived there for thousands of years. Yes, they are still there, although the invading Arabs and their descendants who currently populate the country have tried to take that identity for themself, the seeds of the Pharaohs are still alive. Interestingly, an Arab lady (writer) was threatened and harassed for trying to shed light on the original people of Egypt."
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12. 12. 01:12h
In 2010, BERTIN NAHUM, from Benin, created ROSA, a robot that helps surgeons performs brain surgery. This invention, used in hospital around the world, made him the 4TH most revolutionary high-tech entrepreneurs in the world; after Steve Jobs, Mark Zuckerberg and James Cameron! He is also the CEO of Medtech, a French company which specialize in robotic surgical assistance.
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12. 12. 01:17h
Thomas Jennings was the Inventor of the dry cleaning process He received a patent, on March 3, 1821. for a dry-cleaning process called “dry scouring”. The first money Thomas Jennings earned from his patent was spent on the legal fees necessary to liberate his family out of slavery and support the abolitionist cause
862
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12. 12. 02:46h
The real “Lone Ranger,” it turns out, was an African American man named Bass Reeves, who the legend was based upon. Perhaps not surprisingly, many aspects of his life were written out of the story, including his ethnicity. The basics remained the same: a lawman hunting bad guys, accompanied by a Native American, riding on a white horse, and with a silver trademark. Historians of the American West have also, until recently, ignored the fact that this man was African American, a free black man who headed West to find himself less subject to the racist structure of the established Eastern and Southern states. While historians have largely overlooked Reeves, there have been a few notable works on him. Vaunda Michaux Nelson’s book, Bad News for Outlaws: The Remarkable Life of Bass Reeves, Deputy U.S. Marshal, won the 2010 Coretta Scott King Award for best author. Arthur Burton released an overview of the man’s life a few years ago. Black Gun, Silver Star: The Life and Legend of Frontier Marshal Bass Reeves recounts that Reeves was born into a life of slavery in 1838. His slave-keeper brought him along as another personal servant when he went off to fight with the Confederate Army, during the Civil War. Reeves took the chaos that ensued during the war to escape for freedom, after beating his “master” within an inch of his life, or according to some sources, to death. Perhaps the most intruiging thing about this escape was that Reeves only beat his enslaver after the latter lost sorely at a game of cards with Reeves and attacked him. After successfully defending himself from this attack, he knew that there was no way he would be allowed to live if he stuck around. Reeves fled to the then Indian Territory of today’s Oklahoma and lived harmoniously among the Seminole and Creek Nations of Native American Indians. After the Civil War finally concluded, he married and eventually fathered ten children, making his living as a Deputy U.S. Marshall in Arkansas and the Indian Territory. If this surprises you, it should, as Reeves was the first African American to ever hold such a position. Burton explains that it was at this point that the Lone Ranger story comes in to play. Reeves was described as a “master of disguises”. He used these disguises to track down wanted criminals, even adopting similar ways of dressing and mannerisms to meet and fit in with the fugitives, in order to identify them. Reeves kept and gave out silver coins as a personal trademark of sorts, just like the Lone Ranger’s silver bullets. Of course, the recent Disney adaptation of the Lone Ranger devised a clever and meaningful explanation for the silver bullets in the classic tales. For the new Lone Ranger, the purposes was to not wantonly expend ammunition and in so doing devalue human life. But in the original series, there was never an explanation given, as this was simply something originally adapted from Reeves’ personal life and trademarking of himself. For Reeves, it had a very different meaning, he would give out the valuable coins to ingratiate himself to the people wherever he found himself working, collecting bounties. In this way, a visit from the real “Lone Ranger” meant only good fortune for the town: a criminal off the street and perhaps a lucky silver coin. Like the Lone Ranger, Reeves was also expert crack shot with a gun. According to legend, shooting competitions had an informal ban on allowing him to enter. Like the Lone Ranger, Reeves rode a white horse throughout almost all of his career, at one point riding a light grey one as well. Like the famed Lone Ranger legend Reeves had his own close friend like Tonto. Reeves’ companion was a Native American posse man and tracker who he often rode with, when he was out capturing bad guys. In all, there were close to 3000 of such criminals they apprehended, making them a legendary duo in many regions. The final proof that this legend of Bass Reeves directly inspired into the story of the Lone Ranger can be found in the fact that a large number of those criminals were sent to federal prison in Detroit. The Lone Ranger radio show originated and was broadcast to the public in 1933 on WXYZ in Detroit where the legend of Reeves was famous only two years earlier. Source: http://politicalblindspot.com/the-real-lone-ranger-was-an-african-american-lawman-who-lived-with-native-american-indians/
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12. 12. 06:43h
Marcus Garvey was one of the greatest black leaders we ever had. He organized more black people than any other black leader in the world. Marcus Garvey said that black people will never become successful depending on whites or other races of people, he said that as black people we must come together and do for self. Here is a list Marcus Garvey's achievements.
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12. 13. 01:54h
Here are some reasons to Boycott the "Exodus: Gods &Kings" Movie!!! Historian, Author and Archaeologist, Anthony T. Browder who is the author of "Nile Valley Contributions To Civilization: Exploding The Myths" and featured in "Hidden Colors 2", saw the movie "c" on Thursday night. Here is what he had to say about this movie that is a distortion of history and the depiction of Ancient Egyptians. - Michael Imhotep - The African History Network "I saw "Exodus: Gods and Kings" last night and consider it one of the worst films I’ve seen this year. While there were complaints about the absence of any actors of color, I’m grateful that no Black stars will be associated with this cinematic disaster." "Here are several reasons why you should buy a bootlegged copy from Blackbusters instead of giving your hard earned cash to Rupert Murdock and Ridley Scott." - Anthony Browder 1. Rupert Murdock recently tweeted: “Since when are Egyptians not white? All I know are. They treated blacks as slaves.” 2. Ridley Scott said that he didn’t hire any Black leads for the film because, “I (can’t) get it financed. So the question doesn’t even come up.” 3. "Exodus" took more liberties with the Bible than the film "Noah," which featured giant talking stones that helped Noah defeat his enemies. 4. God is portrayed as an 11 year-old white male with a British accent. 5. Exodus distorts known historical facts. • The film opens in 1300 BC with the battle of Kadesh which actually took place in 1275 BC • King Seti I died in 1279 (4 years before the battle of Kadesh) and was buried in the Temple of Abu Simbel, which was built by Rameses II about 25 years later, and is not a tomb. • The film shows pyramids being built during the reign of Seti and Rameses (who ruled during the 19 dynasty) when in fact the Egyptians stopped building pyramids in the 6th dynasty (about 1000 years earlier). 6. :Exodus" reinforces and amplifies old racial stereotypes. All the powerful people are white and all of the blacks are servants, slaves or security guards. Watching Exodus made me want to scream, “Hollywood, Let my people go,” and wish that that God had written an 11th Commandment telling film makers and distributors, “Thou shall not make bad films and expect people to pay to see them.”
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12. 14. 02:49h
The Temple of Amenhotep IV is the prime temple here and is also known as Gempateen and there's a reason behind it because it translates to “The Sun Disc is Found in the Estate of God Amun”
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12. 14. 04:15h
The Woman you see is A Mangbetu woman The Mangbetu people are from Central Africa - Congo Learn More: http://www.internubian.com/pins/link-pins/item/tribe-the-mangbetu-the-head-elongation-fashionistas-of-central-africa
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12. 14. 11:20h
Meritaten Tasherit, which means Meritaten the Younger was an ancient Egyptian princess of the 18th dynasty. She is likely to have been the daughter of Meritaten, eldest daughter of Pharaoh Akhenaten. The father of this child remains under debate. Many assume it to be none other than Meritaten's father, Akhenaten, or possibly her husband Smenkhkare. Since both Meritaten Tasherit and another princess, Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit appear only in texts that once mentioned Akhenaten's second wife Kiya, it is also possible that they were children of Akhenaten and Kiya, or that they were fictional, replacing the name of Kiya's daughter, who might have been Beketaten, more commonly thought to be Tiye's child.[1][2] The fate of this child is uncertain. The mention of the god Aten in her name suggests that she was indeed a daughter of Akhenaten, since his successors reverted his religious reforms, and reverted to the worship of Egypt's traditional gods. Meanwhile, the name Aten was dropped from popular use during this time.
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12. 14. 18:40h
King Ramesses II, also referred to as Ramesses the Great, was the third Egyptian pharaoh of the 19th dynasty. He reigned from 1279 B.C. to 1213 B.C. He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire. His successors and later Egyptians called him the “Great Ancestor.” Ramesses II led several military expeditions into the Levant, reasserting Egyptian control over Canaan. He also led expeditions south into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at the temples at Beit el-Wali and Gerf Hussein. At age 14, Ramesses was appointed prince regent by his father Seti I. He is believed to have taken the throne in his late teens and is known to have ruled Egypt for 66 years and 2 months, according to Egypt’s contemporary historical records. He was once reported to have lived to 99 years old. Queen Nefertari was the Nubian queen from 1292 to 1225 B.C. One of a many great Nubian queens, Nefertari is heralded as the queen who wed for peace. Her marriage to Ramesses II began strictly as a political move, a sharing of power between two leaders. But not only did it grow into one of the greatest royal love affairs in history, but brought the hundred year war between Nubia and Egypt to an end. Their story was an armistice that lasted over a hundred years. Even today, a monument stands in Queen Nefertari’s honor. In fact, the temple which Ramesses built for her at Abu Simbel is one of the largest and most beautiful structures ever built to honor a wife.
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12. 14. 18:44h
Amenhotep IV, better known as “Akhenaton” is in some respects the most remarkable of the pharaohs. Akhenaton is considered the founder of the first monotheistic religion. He ruled from approximately 1352 – 1336 B.C., coming into power after his father, Amenhotep III, died. Akhenaton’s reign left a profound effect on Egypt and the entire world of his day. Thirteen hundred years before Christ, he preached and lived the gospel of perfect love, brotherhood, and truth. Two thousand years before Muhammed, he taught the doctrine of the “one God.” Three thousand years before Darwin, he sensed the unity that runs through all living things. The account of Akhenaton is not complete without the story of his beautiful wife, Nefertiti. What is known is that the relationship between Akhenaton and Nefertiti was one of history’s first well-known love stories. At the prompting of Akhenaton and Nefertiti, sculptors and artists began to recreate life in its natural state, instead of the rigid and lifeless forms of early Egyptian art.
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12. 14. 18:48h
Taharqa is probably one of the most famous rulers of Napatan Kush, reigning from 690 to 664 B.C.. At 16, this great Nubian king led his armies against the invading Assyrians in defense of his ally, Israel. This action earned him a place in the Bible (Isaiah 37:9, 2 Kings 19:9). During his 25-year rule, Taharqa controlled the largest empire in ancient Africa. His power was equaled only by the Assyrians. These two forces were in constant conflict, but despite continuous warfare, Taharqa was able to initiate a building program throughout his empire, which was overwhelming in scope. The number and majesty of his building projects were legendary, with the greatest being the temple at Gebel Barkal in the Sudan. The temple was carved from rock and decorated with images of Taharqa over 100 feet high.
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12. 14. 20:30h
All credited academic evidence is Clear Negroid; Olmecs are clearly distinguished More Math Lets Look at the Clear Distinctions 1. The step pyramid of the KMT Egyptians closely resembles the step pyramid in America. 2. The Double Crown of Lower and Upper Egypt with the bird and the serpent is also found in Olmec culture with Upper and Lower Egypt being North America and South America. 3. The Mexicans have four calendars. The fourth calendar is identical to the Egyptian calendar. 4. In Mexico, there was found a type of paper made from wood pulp that scientist say can only be found in Egypt. 5. The ceremonial dance of the Hopi Indians is identical to the Dogon’s Bado dance of Africa, using the same symbols and spirit names. 6. Various tribes as the Osage and Apache uses the crescent moon symbol which is the national symbol of Angola, Mauritania, Tunisia, Sahara and Algeria, all in Africa Soure: Memnon Uzan
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12. 14. 20:35h
Portrait of Louis-Benoit Zamor, who as a child was kidnapped and sold to Louis XV, who gave him to his mistress, Jeanne Bécu, comtesse du Barry. Zamor was educated and well-read, enjoying the works of Rousseau. During the Revolution he joined the Jacobins and worked for the Committee of Public Safety, where he helped to have the Comtesse du Barry arrested, tried, and executed Afterward, he was arrested by one of the other factions of the Revolution for a few weeks, and some friends got him released, he appears to have left France for some years. In 1815 he owned a house in Paris and was working as a teacher before his death in 1820
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12. 16. 11:52h
The First Black Doctor of the United States, subsequently he had to pass as white , so People never knew about him. Dr. McCune Smith is known as the first professionally-trained African American doctor. He received his degree in 1837, at a time when the idea of a black man becoming a physician was as far-fetched as traveling to the planet Mars. Dr. McCune Smith couldn’t get his degree in the United States. So, he went to Scotland to get his bachelors , masters and medical degree's and He then returned to the US not only to practice medicine but to help the poor. He was the resident physician at an orphanage in lower Manhattan, putting his skills to good use for unfortunate children. Smith also enjoyed writing and standing up against slavery. Sadly, when he died, he was placed in an unmarked grave and has disappeared from historical conversation.
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12. 17. 21:12h
Row 1: Malcolm X, Martin Luther King Jr., Nat Turner, Martin Delany, Amos Wilson, Ida B. Wells Row 2: Walter Rodney, Eusi Kwayana, Cuffy, Bussa, Sam Sharpe, Marcus Garvey, Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba Row 3: Patrice Lumumba, Thomas Sankara, Steve Biko, Robert Sobukwe, Tavio Amorin, Cetshwayo Row 4: Joseph Casely Hayford, Nzinga, Yaa Asantewaa, Taitu, Menelik II, Nehanda, Zumbi, Louis Delgrès Row 5: Jose Correia Leite, Nanny, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Elijah Muhammad, Queen Mother Moore, Harriet Tubman, Toussaint L’Ouverture, Makandal Daaga Row 6 : La Mulâtresse Solitude, Carter G. Woodson, William Leo Hansberry, Joseph Cinqué, Chancellor Williams, Jean Price-Mars, Samory Touré Row 7: Asa G. Hilliard III, Joshua Nkomo, Julius Nyerere, Nana Olomu, W.E.B. Du Bois, Madison, Funmilayo Kuti, Paul Bogle
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12. 17. 21:18h
"This Egyptian deity under many names appears as the principle of natural fecundity among nearly all the religions of the ancient world. She was known as the goddess with ten thousand appellations and was metamorphosed by Christianity into the Virgin Mary, for Isis, although she gave birth to all living things—chief among them the Sun—still remained a virgin, according to the legendary accounts." -Manly P. Hall “Regardless of the manner of her impregnation, Isis has been asserted to remain a virgin, calling herself the ‘Great Virgin’ and identified in ancient times with virgin goddesses such as Neith, Athena, and Kore.” -D.M. Murdock
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12. 18. 00:30h
On the left is Prince Galenga, a grandson of a Zulu king, a bearded elder, wearing leopard skins and holding a knobkerrie, a zulu weapon of war. On the right is a picture from an 8th century pre-columbian vase from Guatemala depicting a black bearded king, wearing jaguar skins and club very similar to the Zulu's..
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12. 18. 01:55h
Nigerian (Yoruba ) businesswoman and patriot, after whom a prominent Lagos landmark, "Tinubu Square," is named. She lived in the 19th century and was born in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Western Nigeria, to a trading family. According to Dr. John Henrik Clarke, Tinubu was in the slave trade for local consumption only. What she discovered was that the people she held captive, used for local consumption, were being taken out of Afrika not to return, she launched war on slave trade and fought the trade to a stand still, and fought all the kings in the business during this time. She died in 1887 when she was at the height of her popularity. Today in Abeokuta, a monument stands in the town square named after her, Ita Iyalode (Iyalode Square).
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12. 18. 06:09h
In 109 B.C. the Roman Consul Servilius Cepio drained the lake of Toulouse in search of the famous 'gold of Toulouse' that the Gauls had stolen from Delphi. Instead of discovering a worldly treasure however, the statue of a Dark Mother was found floating in the draining water. She was revered as a Pagan goddess until it was decided in 415 A.D., when all Pagan worship was outlawed, that she was really Mary the Mother of God.(*2) The present, late 18th century incarnation of her church still stands where the lake once was, on the banks of the river Garonne.
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12. 18. 06:37h
If you visit Yanga, Veracruz, you’ll see a statue of a tall, imposing African with a machete in hand. He’s known throughout Mexico as the “First Liberator of the Americas,” but the locals call him El Yanga. His real name is Gaspar Yanga, and he was the leader of one of the greatest slave rebellions in North America. Legend has it that Yanga (born 1545) was actually West African royalty before he was captured and brought to Mexico. In Mexico, he was put to work in the blistering heat of a Veracruz plantation, but he wasn’t content to spend his days hacking sugarcane. Instead, he rallied his fellow slaves and led them on a great escape into the mountains near Cordoba. There, Yanga and his band of black and Indian runaways formed a community dedicated to keeping slaves in and the Spanish out. They plundered caravans traveling to Mexico City, taking goods and weapons, and when they got lonely, they raided nearby towns, capturing local women. Yanga and his band of “cimarrones” lived in the mountains for 40 years before the Spanish got sick of him. In 1609, they sent 550 troops, all heavily armed, into the mountains to capture those pesky slaves. But Yanga and his men were waiting for them, armed mostly with rocks, machetes, and bows. First Yanga tried to be diplomatic and make a deal, but when the Spanish burned his village to the ground, the runaways took to the jungle. The Spanish made the mistake of following them into the forest, and were assaulted left and right by stones and arrows. Eventually, the Spanish grew tired of guerrilla warfare and agreed to negotiate. In exchange for their loyalty and an annual tribute, Yanga and his community were granted freedom and the right to form their own settlement. In 1618, the rebels formed the town of San Lorenzo de Los Negros, and today it’s known simply as Yanga.
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12. 18. 18:06h
This is the first known pyramid. It is also the world's first large known stone building. It is made of limestone and is still there for the world to see. It was designed by the Black multigenius Imhotep nearly 5000 years ago. There were no Arabs in Egypt at that time. Nor were there any Hebrews. This is before the Torah, the Bible, the Quran. It was before the Rig Veda, the Bhagavad Gita or any Buddhist scriptures. But African civilization was already ancient. Source: Runoko Rashidi
792
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12. 18. 19:23h
Tiye was the daughter of Yuya and Tjuyu. She became the Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III. She was the mother of Akhenaten and grandmother of Tutankhamun.
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12. 20. 19:16h
Another Hero For Today ............... Samory Touré (1830-1900) of the emergent Mandinka Empire in Guinea/Mali/Sierra Leone and northern Côte d'Ivoire was born in Guinea. As his new empire was taking off, Touré began to forge a new political order and ran up against the French imperialists who were also trying to extend their territories inland from their base in Dakar, Senegal.
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12. 20. 20:28h
Ndate Yalla Mbodj (1810[?]–1860) was the last queen of the Walo kingdom in northwest Senegal. She succeeded her sister in 1846 and fought against French colonization.
814
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12. 21. 03:47h
Let me Give you pure Academic on How the Ethiopians and Egyptians are One People and the Descendants as all of Africa but Particularly ,The Afar, The Beja, The Dogon, The Omo Valley are the Egyptians....Here is the Math from people who wrote in those times The First Greek historians including their Father of History who Did the Acdemics there......This is from the Book "History of Ethiopia According to Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus and Strabo" "The Aithiopians [Ethiopians] say that the Egyptians are settlers from among themselves and that Ausar(Osiris) was the leader of the settlement. The customs of the Egyptians, they say, are for the most part Aithiopian, the settlers having preserved their old traditions. For to consider the kings gods, to pay great attention to funeral rites, and many other things, are Aithiopian practices, and also the style of their statues and the form of their writing are Aithiopian. Also the way the priestly colleges are organized is said to be the same in both nations. For all who have to do with the the gods, they maintain, are [ritually] pure: the priests are shaved in the same way, they have the same robes and the type of scepter shaped like a plough, which also the kings have, who use tall pointed felt hats ending in a knob, with the snakes that they call the asp (aspis) coiled round them." "There are also numerous other Aithiopian tribes [i.e. besides those centered at Meroe]; some live along both sides of the river Nile and on the islands in the river, others dwell in the regions that border on Arabia [i.e. to the east], others again have settled in the interior of Libya [i.e. to the west]. The majority of these tribes, in particular those who live along the river, have black skin, snub-nosed faces, and curly hair". - Diodorus Siculus (History of Ethiopia According to Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus and Strabo Siculus, Bibliotheke, 3. vol. II: Source: Memnon Uzan
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12. 21. 21:52h
The statues of ancient Buddahs of the East depected him as having wolly hair is always shown in[b] corn rows[/b], or in a pepper corn style with small tight curls. Original statues of Buddha clearly show him to be Africoid, with the wide nose, thick lips and frizzy, nappy, hair which are distinctive Negro characteristics. In most ancient temples throughout Asia where he is still worshipped, he is shown as jet Black. In fact, in most of the ancient temples of Asia and India, statues of the gods and goddesses have Africoid features with woolly hair in the pepper corn style, while some even have dreadlocks. These pictures of Buddha portray him in no uncertain terms as a Negro with kinky, coiled hair, a flat nose and full lips
705
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12. 21. 22:32h
The Dutch Story of Santa and Black Pete and,(Santas little helpers) Kidnapping Naughty Kids? According to Helene Adeline Guerber the origin of Sinterklaas and his helpers has been linked by some to the Wild Hunt of Wodan. Riding the white horse Sleipnir he flew through the air as the leader of the Wild Hunt. He was always accompanied by two black ravens, Huginn and Muninn.[6] Those helpers would listen, just like Zwarte Piet, at the chimney - which was just a hole in the roof at that time - to tell Wodan about the good and bad behaviour of the mortals.[7][8] Due to its speculative character, however, this older 'Germanic' theory has little support among present-day scholars, although it continues to be popular in non-scholarly sources. At the same time, it seems clear that the Saint Nicholas tradition contains a number of elements that are not ecclesiastical in origin.[9] Illustration from Jan Schenkman's book In medieval iconography, Saint Nicholas is sometimes presented as taming a chained devil, who may or may not be black. Although no hint of a devil, servant, or any other human or human-like fixed companion to the Saint is found in visual and textual sources from the Netherlands from the 16th until the 19th century,[10] Zwarte Piet and his equivalents in Germanic Europe, according to a long-standing theory,[11] originally must have represented such an enslaved devil, forced to assist his captor. This chained and fire-scorched devil somehow re-emerged in the 19th-century Netherlands in the likeness of a Moor, as a servant of Saint Nicholas.[12] A devil as a helper of the saint can still be found in the Austrian Saint Nicholas tradition, in the character of Krampus. Source: Mark Ivri Wikipedia
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12. 23. 18:38h
Ralph Bunche, Martin Luther King
866
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12. 24. 08:03h
"Imitation is not discipleship. The Mohammaden Negro is a much better Mohammaden then the Christian Negro is a Christian, because the Muslim Negro, as a learner, is a disciple, not an imitator. A disciple, when freed from leading strings, may become a producer; an imitator never rises above a mere copyist. With the disciple progress is from within; the imitator grows by accretion from without. The learning acquired by a disciple gives him capacity that gained by an imitator terminates in itself. The one becomes a capable man; the other is a mere sciolist. This explains the difference between the Mohammedan and the Christian Negro. "- Dr. Edward W. Blyden 1877Blyden , E.W. (1887). Christianity, islam, and the negro race. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
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12. 24. 08:06h
This 7 year old, social entrepreneur runs possibly the cutest lemonade stand (and inspiring business) we have ever come across. Inspired by a recipe found in her 88-year-old great-grandmother Helen’s vintage 1940s-era cookbook, Mikaila adds honey and her own secret ingredients to create BeeSweet Lemonade with Flaxseed. Yum! We can see why it won “Most Creative Lemonade” in Austin’s 2011 Best Lemonade contest.
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12. 25. 04:36h
John Brown (c.1810 – 1876) also known by his slave name, "Fed", was a slave in Virginia. After several attempts, Brown finally managed to escape and moved around the country and the world, eventually sailing to England in 1850 where he worked as a carpenter in London. He contacted the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society and in 1855 he dictated the book Slave Life in Georgia: A Narrative of the Life, Sufferings, and Escape of John Brown, a Fugitive Slave, Now in England to the society's secretary, Louis Alexis Chamerovzow
704
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12. 25. 04:38h
William Ellison Jr, born April Ellison, (C. April, 1790 – 5 December 1861) was a cotton gin maker and blacksmith in South Carolina, a free negro and former slave who achieved considerable success in business before the American Civil War. He eventually became a major planter and one of the largest property owners, and certainly the wealthiest "black" property owner, in the state. He held 60 slaves at his death and more than 1,000 acres of land. From 1830-1865 he and his sons were the only free blacks in Sumter County, South Carolina to own slaves. The county was largely devoted to cotton plantations and the majority population were slaves
859
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12. 25. 04:40h
Teresa de Benguela was a leading maroon who lived in Brazil during the 18th century . She was the wife of Joseph Louse , who headed the Quilombo louse. With the death of Joseph, Teresa became the queen of the quilombo, and under her leadership, the community black and indigenous resisted slavery for two decades, surviving until 1770, when the quilombo was destroyed by the forces of Luiz Pinto de Souza Coutinho and the population (79 blacks and 30 Indians), killed or imprisoned.
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12. 26. 09:12h
Bao Zheng ( 11 April 999 – 20 May 1062), commonly known as Bao Gong (“Lord Bao”), was a government officer during the reign of Emperor Renzong in ancient China’s Song Dynasty. During his twenty five years in civil service, Bao consistently demonstrated extreme honesty and uprightness, with actions such as sentencing his own uncle, impeaching an uncle of Emperor Renzong’s favourite concubine and punishing powerful families. His appointment from 1057 to 1058 as the prefect of Song’s capital Kaifeng, where he initiated a number of changes to better hear the grievances of the people, made him a legendary figure. Nicknamed “Justice Bao”, Bao Zheng today is respected as the cultural symbol of justice in Greater China. His largely fictionalized gong’an and wuxia stories have appeared in a variety of different literary and dramatic mediums, and have enjoyed sustained popularity. In opera or drama, he is often portrayed with a black face and a white crescent shaped birthmark on his forehead. In legends, he is described as a dark-skinned Chinese man with a very dark face.
737
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12. 26. 20:22h
Vicente Guerrero, Mexico’s first black president, was his nation’s Lincoln. In 1829 he issued Mexico’s slavery abolition decree (which led a few years later to Texas slave holders taking Texas out of Mexico) Obama and Lincoln are known for building coalitions. Guerrero built one when he was commander-in-chief of the Mexican army during the last three years of Mexico’s exhaustive 1810-1821 war for independence from Spain. Key actions by Guerrero to end the war were his spread of letters to Mexican officers who had been hired to fight for Spain
565
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12. 26. 21:19h
Nubian Goddess
765
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12. 26. 21:20h
Nubian Goddess
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12. 26. 21:21h
Nubian Goddess
775
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12. 26. 21:25h
african beauty
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12. 26. 21:30h
african beauty
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12. 26. 21:32h
african beauty
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12. 26. 22:16h
Then most people also think that George Washington was the first president of the united states of America, but John henson a black man, was the first black president of the united states, under articles of confederation. George Washington was the first president under the constitution. Before the american constitution was made, they chose 21 presidents to rule for a year each, and out of those 21, 7 of them were black presidents. Here a picture of john Hanson to the left shown as a black man. too the right is Wikipedia version of john hanson shown as light in complication almost like a white man or mixed with white.
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12. 27. 08:35h
Black people are the original Arabs, Hebrews, Egyptians/Kemetians. The white Arabs and ALL Caucasians can take their origin back only 6000 years. We were there BEFORE them and will be there AFTER them. We practiced Islam before Muhammad(pbuh) and the Quran. The NAME Islam started with Muhammad not the practice which is obedience to God and Peace
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12. 27. 08:46h
The Eye of Horus Symbol of Protection, Wisdom and Health. Also an Kemetic (Egyptian) Symbol Designed to resemble the eye of a falcon, this symbol is also called the Eye of Ra. Horus, also known as the sun god Ra, was a falcon-headed sky god from ancient Kemet (Egypt). He is associated with vitality, health regeneration and higher vision in all it's many forms. Source: Moja Na Hekima
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12. 27. 13:02h
The true identity of Ludwig van Beethoven, long considered Europe’s greatest classical music composer. Said directly, Beethoven was a black man. Specifically, his mother was a Moor, that group of Muslim Northern Africans who conquered parts of Europe--making Spain their capital--for some 800 years. In order to make such a substantial statement, presentation of verifiable evidence is compulsory. Let's start with what some of Beethoven's contemporaries and biographers say about his brown complexion.: ” Frederick Hertz, German anthropologist, used these terms to describe him: “Negroid traits, dark skin, flat, thick nose.” Emil Ludwig, in his book “Beethoven,” says: “His face reveals no trace of the German. He was so dark that people dubbed him Spagnol [dark-skinned].” Fanny Giannatasio del Rio, in her book “An Unrequited Love: An Episode in the Life of Beethoven,” wrote “His somewhat flat broad nose and rather wide mouth, his small piercing eyes and swarthy [dark] complexion, pockmarked into the bargain, gave him a strong resemblance to a mulatto.”
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12. 27. 13:07h
Alexander Pushkin - Pushkin was born into Russian nobility in Moscow. His matrilineal great grandfather – Abram Gannibal – was brought over as a slave from what is now Eritrea and had risen to become an aristocrat.[9] Pushkin published his first poem at the age of fifteen, and was widely recognized by the literary establishment by the time of his graduation from the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum.
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12. 28. 23:59h
The state of California was named for Califia, reputedly a Black virgin queen. She was said to rule an "island nation" of Amazons, where gold was the only metal. Even as late as 1707, some European maps continued to depict California as an island. While many California children hear the story in school of the origin of our State’s name, not many are made aware that she was said to be Black. Were there Blacks in California at such an early date? Califia's life and land "at the right hand of the Indies" were described in a novel written about 1510, by Garcia Ordonez Rodriguez de Montalvo, a Spanish writer, and was entitled "Las Serges des Esplandian". To some extent, this document helped to precipitate the Spanish hunt for gold in North America. In fact, thirty years later, when the explorer Cortes landed with his crew in what is known today as Baja California, it is said that he announced to his men (of which 300 were of African descent) that they had arrived in Califia's land. By 1770, the entire Pacific coast controlled by Spain had been given the name California, and the Spanish speaking people who lived there were called Californios. A portion of the original of this document was translated by Edward Everett Hale for The Antiquarian Society, and the story was printed in the Atlantic Monthly magazine in 1864. The best known depictions of Queen Califia are murals done by well known artists. One seven foot high panel showing Califia as a Black woman with her Amazons is in The Room of the Dons at the Mark Hopkins Intercontinental Hotel in San Francisco, and was created for the opening of the hotel in 1926, by Maynard Dixon and Frank Von Sloun. Another famous depiction, created by Louise Lloyd and entitled "The Naming of California", can be seen in Sacramento in the Senate Rules Committee Hearing Chamber on the 4th floor of the State Building. Could Queen Califia's legend possibly bear seeds of truth regarding her racial identity? Indeed there is a long history of Africans having arrived on American shores at very early dates, and of Spanish ancestry sometimes having been mixed with Black.
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12. 29. 00:53h
Ahmet Ali Çelikten (86 years old) also known as Arap Ahmet Ali or İzmirli Ahmet Ali (born İzmirli Alioğlu Ahmed; 1883–1969) was an Ottoman aviator who may have been the first black military pilot in aviation history and was one of only two black pilots in World War I (the other being Eugene Jacques Bullard). His grandmother came from Bornu (now in Nigeria) to the Ottoman Empire as a slave. Ahmet born in 1883 in İzmir, in the Aidin Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire[6] to his mother Zenciye Emine Hanım and father Ali Bey, of African Turkish descent.He aimed to become a naval sailor and entered the Naval Technical School named Haddehâne Mektebi (literally "School of the Blooming Mill") in 1904.In 1908, he graduated from school as a First Lieutenant (Mülâzım-ı evvel). And then he went to aviation courses in the Naval Flight School (Deniz Tayyare Mektebi) that was formed on 25 June 1914 at Yeşilköy. He was then a member of the Ottoman Air Force. During World War I, he married Hatice Hanım (1897–1991) who was an immigrant from Preveza. He became first black military pilot in aviation history when he started serving in November 1916. On 18 December 1917, Captain (Yüzbaşı) Ahmed Ali was sent to Berlin to complete aviation courses. He died in 1969.
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12. 29. 05:53h
Esther Jones , Black performer at Harlem’s Cotton Club, where a white singer/actress named Helen Kane saw her act in 1928 & copied Jones’ baby singing style & her scatting of the lines “Boop oop a doop.” Betty Boop cartoon character by Max Fleischer copied Esther Jones' baby singing style & aesthetic.
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12. 29. 08:05h
First Black Queen of England Mother to The Black Prince. Daughter of William of Hainault a Belgian Lord, she was chosen at the tender age of 9 years old, by the then King of England Edward II to marry his son Edward III. She was described by the Bishop of Stapledon as follows " The Lady we saw has not uncomely hair, betwixt blue-black and brown. Her head is clean shaped; her forehead high and broad and standing somewhat forward. Her face narrows between the eyes and the lower part of her face is still more narrow and slender than the forehead. Her eyes are blackish brown and deep. her nose is fairly even and smooth, save that it is somewhat broad at the tip and flattened, yet it is no snub nose, her nostrils are also broad, her mouth fairly wide. her lips somewhat full especially her lower lip... all her limbs are well set and unmaimed, and nought is amiss so far as a man may see. Moreover she is brown of skin all over and much like her father, and in all things she is pleasant enough, as it seems to us." Philipa and Edward were married 5 years later and were crowned King and Queen in 1330, at this time she was 17 years old and already heavily pregnant with their first child, Edward (The Black Prince). Many say that he was called this because of the colour of his armour, but there are records that show that he was called "black" when he was very small. The French called him 'Le Noir' A very remarkable woman she was wise, known and loved by the English for her kindness. When the King was abroad she would rule as his Regent. Queens College in Oxford University ws founded under her direction by her chaplain in 1341 when she was just 28 years old. When she died Edward never really recovered, and she was much mourned by him and the country. King Edward had a beautiful sculpture made for her tomb which you can see today at Westminster Abbey in London.
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12. 29. 08:34h
Amina was born around 1533 in Zaria, a province of today’s Nigeria. She was the daughter of Bakwa of Turunku. Their family's wealth was derived from the trade of leather goods, cloth, kola, salt, horses and imported metals. When Bakwa died in 1566, the crown of Zazzua passed to Amina’s younger brother, Karama. Their sister, Zaria, fled the region and little is known about her. Although Bakwa's reign was known for peace and prosperity, Amina chose to hone her military skills from the warriors of the Zazzau military. As a result, she emerged as leader of the Zazzua cavalry. Many accolades, great wealth, and increased power resulted from her numerous military achievements. When her brother Karama died after a ten-year rule, Amina had matured into a fierce warrior and had earned the respect of the Zazzau military and she assumed the reign of the kingdom. Amina led her first military charge a few months after assuming power. For the rest of her 34 year reign, she continued to fight and expand her kingdom to the greatest in history. The objective for initiating so many battles was to make neighbouring rulers her vassal and permit her traders safe passage. In this way, she boosted her kingdom’s wealth and power with gold, slaves, and new crops. Because her people were talented metal workers, Amina introduced metal armor, including iron helmets and chain mail, to her army. To her credit, she fortified each of her military camps with an earthen wall. Later, towns and villages sprung up within these protective barriers. The walls became known as Amina’s Walls and many of them remain in existence to this day. According to legend, Amina refused to marry and never bore children. Instead, she took a temporary husband from the legions of vanquished foes after every battle. After spending one night together, she would condemn him death in the morning in order to prevent him from ever speaking about his sexual encounter with the queen.
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12. 29. 08:42h
Joseph Richard Winters was a Black inventor who invented the fire escape ladder in 1878.
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12. 29. 08:49h
Rufus Jack Weaver invented the stair-climbing wheelchair in 1968, U.S. patent #3,411,598
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12. 29. 09:12h
15-year-old entrepreneur, Warren Cassell Jr. Author (2 Books), Founder/owner (ZapSocial and Chupz.co) & Executive Chairman of The Abella Group, LLC.
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12. 29. 09:34h
Signs and Symbols from the Nile Valley
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12. 29. 10:37h
The Aeta (Ayta, pronounced eye-tə), or Agta, are an indigenous people who live in scattered, isolated mountainous parts of the island of Luzon, the Philippines. These peoples are considered to be Negritos, whose skin ranges from dark to very dark brown, and possessing features such as a small stature and frame; hair of a curly to kinky texture and a higher frequency of naturally lighter colour (blondism) relative to the general population; small nose; and dark brown eyes. They are thought to be among the earliest inhabitants of the Philippines, preceding the Austronesian migrations. The earliest inhabitants of the Philippines lived some 40,000 years ago. The Aeta were included in the group of people termed "Negrito" during Spanish Era. Various Aeta groups in northern Luzon are known as Pugut or Pugot, an Ilocano term that also means "goblin" or "forest spirit", and is the colloquial term for people with darker complexions. These names are mostly considered inappropriate or derogatory by fellow Negritos of northern Luzon.
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12. 29. 13:39h
Reincarnation is a major feature of Afrakan culture. However, many mistake the Hindu concept for the Afrakan. In Afrakan ontology, (Yoruba specifically) humans cannot reincarnate as animals. In fact, humans cannot reincarnate outside of their ethnic group. Even if you have a mixed baby you do not reincarnate as mixed, a mixed person will reincarnate in your seed while you reincarnate as Black. If you are Black now you will ALWAYS be Black for infinite lifetimes. This will upset many of you because you like to fantasize that you can escape your ethnic group and become another one. That's exactly why the Indo-Aryans started preaching false reincarnation theory. They wanted the oppressed to think they could escape their ethnic group and therefore not be devoted to its liberation. Meanwhile the Indo-Aryans were establishing a system that would benefit only Indo-Aryans because they knew they would reincarnate as Indo-Aryans. The conquered Dravidians that converted to Hinduism (their original spiritual system was Yoga) were not devoted to their dark group and so they behaved individually, concerned about their own survival. As a result, the group suffered. This is the same psychology at work in Christianity and Islam. They have Afrakan people believing that they can follow after the European and Arabs money and that they will die and go to heaven and not have to answer to their ethnic group. The truth is that the neglect you have of your ethnic group will visit twice-fold in the next life. You cannot escape it; it will follow you eternally until you fix it. Everyone understands this but us. Don't believe for a second that the Europoid and Indo-Aryan elite do not understand reincarnation. They understand it very well because they studied under us in Kemet. They understood it enough to know that they had to hide this truth from us by creating false after-life concepts that suggest to people that they will not be responsible for the conditions of their ethnic group in this life and the next. Until we realize that we are Black today and forever will be Black in each life, we will not make efforts to ensure the success of the Black race. This is especially true when we realize that the Indo-Aryan lies about ending reincarnation through Nirvana. Yoruba teachings explain in the Odu Ifa that reincarnation will never end for an individual. Our reincarnation is eternal until we reach enlightenment as a group because we are not individual beings, that is an illusion the Indo-Aryans made up. Afrakans teach that we exist as a group that is one, just as cells in a body do not exist as individuals but as a group. Our individual destiny is therefore a group destiny. --Kushite-Kemetic Spiritual Science@facebook
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12. 29. 14:03h
There were 30 dynasties in Kemet and all were established and ruled by indigenous Africans. They reigned from 3200 BCE until 332 BCE. They are identified in the chart below by their name, dynasty and the year they ascended the throne. Kemet officially became Egypt in 332 BCE when she was conquered by the Greeks (and the Romans) who ruled Egypt between 332 BCE and 323 ACE. (See pages 63-65 of Nile Valley Contributions to Civilization for a more detailed list). -Anthony Browder
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12. 30. 02:50h
Born a slave in Pernambuco, Brazil, he became an outstanding soldier. He led a force of blacks and whites to block the Dutch effort to take over Brazil and changed the course of Latin American history. He was decorated by the king of Portugal and a regiment in the Brazilian Army was named after him.
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12. 30. 04:06h
Accepted when he was only 10, Carson Huey-You is attending Texas Christian University majoring in quantum physics. The youngster was co-valedictorian of his senior class and scored a 1770 on his SAT, speaks Mandarin Chinese and played the piano in the Admissions Center, according to the campus newspaper. Though impressive, Huey-You is not the youngest-ever college student. Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2404988/Child-prodigy-Carson-Huey-You-11-starts-semester-college-studying-quantum-physics.html#ixzz3NLnQMPbR Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook
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12. 31. 06:23h
This 8,000 year-old giraffe rock carving in DaBous, Niger is considered one of the finest petroglyphs in the world. The giraffe has a leash on its nose implying some level of taming the animals. It was found relatively recently on the top of a granite hill by local Touaregs and dates to the Kiffian era of 7,000 - 9,000 years ago.
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12. 31. 10:56h
According to ancient Egyptian texts - which are the oldest of humanity - Ancient africans oriented themselves according to 3 elements : - Ta Ntjer (The Holy land) - The course of Iteru (The Nile river) - The course of the sun Ta Ntjer or ta Netjer is the great Lakes and Southern Africa were they knew for thousands of years that humanity was created. It has been confirmed by science today. And also Iteru takes its source in the great Lakes and goes down to the Mediteranean sea. These are the reasons why the great Lakes and Southern Africa are the North (Shemau) and Egypt is the South (Mehu). The sun rises on Somalia and sets on Senegal. Somalia represents therefore the East (Yabet) and Senegal the West (Imenet).
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01. 02. 02:20h
High Priests and Spirit mediums of the two Zimbabwe leaders Mbuya Nehanda and Sekuru Kaguvi who inspired a rebellion of the Zezuru people against European colonial settlers in present day Zimbabwe. Here, they have been captured, tried and photographed before being executed by hanging in 1897.
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01. 02. 13:32h
QUEEN TUYA, WIFE OF SETI I AND RAMSES THE GREAT, IN DYNASTY 19 WITH WHAT APPEARS TO BE A HEAVY CEREMONIAL WIG. THIS STATUE IS IN THE VATICAN.
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01. 04. 10:30h
African-American sociologist, historian and writer. He is noted for his work on African civilizations prior to encounters with Europeans; Dr. Williams remains a key figure in the Afrocentric discourse. He is among historians who asserted that Ancient Egypt was predominantly a black civilization .Dr. Williams was a son of the reconstruction south. His father had been a former slave, and his mother had been a cook, a nurse, and an evangelist. Professor Williams' curiosity, about racial equality and cultural struggles began as early as the fifth grade. Thus he devoted his lifetime and academic pursuits to the study of ancient history. He conducted field studies covering 26 nations in West, Central, East and Southern Africa, researching some 105 different societies and language groups. The results are an interpretation of Black History from the conquered as opposed to that of the conqueror. He assessed the factors that lead to the downfall of a people who were once the "Cradle of Civilization." He explains what happened, how it happened, and most importantly, what can be done about it. Meanwhile, all of these insights and ideas are available. Professor Williams published over 50 articles, professional books, and lectures. Among his publications are The Raven, The Rebirth of African Civilization, and the greatest book, The Destruction of Black Civilization.
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01. 04. 11:14h
A devout Muslim, Askia “The Great” ruled and administered Songhay strictly according to Islamic law. He united the entire central region of the Western Soudan, and established a governmental machine that is still revered today for its detail and efficiency. learn more http://anheuser-busch.com/index.php/our-responsibility/community-our-neighborhoods/education/legends-of-the-crown-image-gallery/
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01. 04. 11:22h
For 33 years Hatshepsut was the ablest queen as she withstood male rivals after her father appointed her heiress to the throne. She was the leader of the world’s leading nation of the time. To increase her popularity she had spectacular temples and pyramids erected, of which many still stand today.
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01. 04. 17:51h
This text was written to train scholars in the field of astronomy, a science that Islamic tradition traces back to Adam and to the Prophet Idris. The author discusses how to use the movements of the stars to calculate the beginning of the seasons and how to cast horoscopes, among many other aspects of astronomy. Displayed is a diagram demonstrating the rotation of the heavens. Nasir al-Din Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn al-Hajj al-Amin al-Tawathi al-Ghalawi. Kashf al-Ghummah fi Nafa al-Ummah (The Important Stars Among the Multitude of the Heavens), copied 1733. Verso. Loaned by the Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library, Timbuktu, Mali (1)
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01. 06. 23:27h
Youssou N'Dour Highest-Paid Singer in the World.He owns the biggest media house in Senegal with radio and TV stations with a lot of investments in real estate. He once also served as a Senegalese cultural ambassador. In April 2012, N’dour was appointed the tourism and culture minister in the cabinet of new Prime Minister Abdoul Mbaye.
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01. 07. 20:01h
Nigeria has come on the global scene in the information communication technology sector, as 9-year-old Jomiloju Tunde-Oladipo joined the community of achievers when he became one of the world’s youngest 2013 certified Microsoft Office specialists for Office Word 2010. Jomiloju, a primary 6 pupil of Role Model School, owned by DayStar Christian Centre, Oregun, Ikeja Lagos, broke the record created in 2012 by 10-year-old JSS1 student, Seyi-Ojo Anjolaoluwa, who was adjudged the youngest Nigerian and one of the youngest people in the world to have become a Microsoft certified professional. Read More: http://atlantablackstar.com/2013/10/15/9-year-old-boy-becomes-nigerias-youngest-microsoft-certified-professional/
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01. 08. 11:09h
Paul Orajiaka, a 37 year-old Nigerian entrepreneur, is the founder of Auldon Limited, a manufacturer of African-themed toys. Auldon manufactures dolls and other toys which depict, promote and teach Africa’s cultural heritage to children. Orajiaka founded the company 17 years ago with less than $100; it now has annual revenues of more than $10 million. Apart from Nigeria, Auldon’s toys are now sought after in countries like South Africa, Ghana, Kenya, and some parts of Europe. Last year, Auldon launched the Unity Girl Dolls, a set of multi-cultural dolls clad in the traditional attires of Nigeria’s major ethnic groups. It has been a runaway success and a tremendous hit among Nigerian parents and their daughters. Orajiaka is currently studying for a Doctorate in Business Administration [DBA] at Henley Business School of the University of Readin, majoring in Entrepreneurship. I recently had a chat with him where he recounted his journey and spoke about his future plans. Read More: http://www.forbes.com/sites/mfonobongnsehe/2015/01/06/the-nigerian-entrepreneur-who-built-a-10-million-toy-company/
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01. 21. 20:54h
Enoch, the Ethiopian, Patriarch and Prophet, Greater than Abraham, Holier than Moses, is the first perfect human being in the Bible and the first ~ man according to Moses the lawgiver. (Gen. 5:18, 22, 24) And yet he has been kept a secret until the printing of this revealing book. The Bible states that only three men ascended body, mind and soul into heaven. Enoch was the first. Elijah was the second and Jesus Christ was the third. Enoch, however is unique. He was the first to have both walked with, and to have ascended into heaven without experiencing death. Enoch lived such a righteous life that he did not die. Enoch, the son of Jared, the seventh seed of Adam, the great grandfather of Noah,father of Methuselah This prophetic man, an outstanding spiritual leader before the Biblical flood, is the most towering biblical character in history whose flawless credentials and heavenly achievements are recounted by Moses. The greatest Biblical revelation since the discovery of the dead sea scrolls.
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01. 22. 00:07h
When only old Carthage was considered Africa. When Arabia was considered a part of Cush and the Red Sea was an inland Lake. Before the Warrior Chief Zulu Shaka was betrayed by his brother and the Caucasian renamed the cape S.Africa. When the Atlantic Ocean was known as the Ethiopian Sea and the Indian Ocean was the Eritrean Sea. During the Ghana, Mali, before Songhai Empire when The Entire Sahara was the Sudan, and when the new Sudan was Ancient Nubia. When Tanzania was Zimbabwe, when Eritrea and Somalia was unified, before Abyssinia was Axum! Before Mongol-Turks renamed Marakesh, Morocco and the whole North West Sahara to Spain was Mauritania. When Western Europe was ruled by Black Nobility and Spain was known as Al Andalus. . The MotherLand is an Ether Utopia and was internationally known as Ethiopia. We taught the Greeks Earth, Ether, Ethics, and Ethiopia. Africa is a colonial term, just as much as Negro is. Source Facebook: Ethiopian Kundalini
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01. 22. 16:46h
Egyptian medicine is some of the oldest ever documented. From the 33rd century BC until the Persian invasion in 525 BC, Egyptian medical practice remained consistent in its highly advanced methods for the time. Homer even wrote in the Odyssey: “In Egypt, the men are more skilled in medicine than any of human kind,” and “The Egyptians were skilled in medicine more than any other art.” Remedies from the ancient Ebers Papyrus scrolls: • Aloe vera was used to alleviate burns, ulcers, skin diseases and allergies • Basil was written up as heart medicine • Balsam Apple (Apple of Jerusalem) was used as a laxative and as a liver stimulant • Bayberry was prescribed for diarrhea, ulcers and hemorrhoids • Caraway soothed digestion and was a breath freshener • Colchicum (citrullus colocynthus or meadow saffron) soothed rheumatism and reduced swelling • Dill was recognized for laxative and diuretic properties • Fenugreek was prescribed for respiratory disorders and to cleanse the stomach and calm the liver and pancreas • Frankincense was used for throat and larynx infections, and to stop bleeding and vomiting • Garlic was given to the Hebrew slaves daily to give them vitality and strength for building the pyramids • Licorice was utilized as a mild laxative, to expel phlegm, and to alleviate chest and respiratory problems • Onion was taken to prevent colds and to address cardiovascular problems (How did they know?) • Parsley was prescribed as a diuretic Thyme was given as a pain reliever and Tumeric for open wounds • Poppy was used to relieve insomnia, as an anesthetic, and to deaden pain • Coriander was taken as a tea for urinary complaints, including cystitis • Pomegranate root was strained with water and drunk to address “snakes of the belly” (tapeworms). The alkaloids contained in pomegranate paralyzed the worms’ nervous system and they relinquished their hold. • Persian henna was used against hair loss Disease and natural cures in Ancient Egypt Disease was not uncommon in Ancient Egypt. There were many skin afflictions and parasites from the Nile river waters. Worms and tuberculosis were common, sometimes transmitted from cattle. Pneumonia struck people who breathed in too much sand into the lungs during sand storms. But the Egyptian physicians took full advantage of the natural resources all around them in order to treat common ailments. Many of their methods are still very viable today and are considered part of the homeopathic world of medicine. Thanks to diligent record keeping, scholars have been able to translate the scrolls and appreciate what the Egyptians knew back then about anatomy, hygiene, and healing. Those scrolls, without question, paved the way for modern medicine. Source: http://www.endalldisease.com/
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01. 23. 20:39h
Born in Nigeria Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Fullani al-Kishnawi spent his life career in the middle east. He was a Fulani from northern Nigeria. He traveled to Egypt and in 1732 he wrote a manuscript (in Arabic) of procedures for constructing magic squares up to order 11. Note general construction methods of magic squares appeared in the countries of Islam in the 9th century, and the science of magic squares arrived there at its zenith in the 11th and 12th centuries. From the 13th century, magical and divinatary applications began to replace of mathematical study. Classical construction methods survived, however, in later treatises of a certain level, such as that by Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Fullani al-Kishnawi. Muhammad died in Cairo in 1741.
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01. 25. 02:51h
Beautiful Himba girl from Opuwo in Kaokoland, Namibia with her two plaited hairstyle symbolizing her virginity By tradition, a young Himba girl typically has two plaits of braided hair called ozondato, the form being determined by her oruzo (the paternal clan) she belongs.Young children tend to have shaved heads, although some have special haircuts that indicate they belong to a clan where taking care of goats with small ears is taboo - a tradition that extends to eating their meat. The Himba (singular: OmuHimba, plural: OvaHimba) are indigenous peoples with an estimated population of about 50,000 people living in northern Namibia, in the Kunene region (formerly Kaokoland) and on the other side of the Kunene River in Angola. There are also few groups left of the Ovatwa, which also belong to the Himba people, but are hunters and gatherers. The OvaHimba are a semi-nomadic, pastoral people, culturally distinguishable from the Herero people in northern Namibia and southern Angola, and speak OtjiHimba (a Herero language dialect), which belongs to the language family of the Bantu.The OvaHimba are considered the last (semi-) nomadic people of Namibia. A Himba girl with a single locked plait pointing forward, which means she is one of a set of twins. For years,this ancient ethnic group of semi-nomadic herders known as the Himba has drawn photographers to Namibia's barren northwest.
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01. 25. 19:32h
Did you know the first and greatest love story is called the Osirian Drama? It is an African story. Asr was the African name for Osiris. He was the first savior of humanity. His wife was Ast (Isis). Ast was slain by his evil brother Set but mourned by his wife Ast. Her many tears caused the Nile River to rise. Her love would not die and with all of the power of an African woman she restored Asr to life. Ast was responsible for the first resurrected savior. Now check that out!
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02. 07. 03:31h
"The name 'Africa' comes from the Afar people, who lived (and live), at the southern end of the Red Sea." ~Professor Martin Bernal, author of Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization The Kamites (ancient Egyptians) term, 'Af-Rui-Ka,' meaning “Place of Beginnings.” Canaanites (the Greeks called them Phoenicians) term, 'Afar' means, 'Dust.' The Canaanites also used the term, 'Afryqah' which denoted a 'Colony,' referring to, Carthage (in Africa), the new city, being a colony of the Canaanites. An Arabic term, 'Ifriqiya,' is often assumed to come from the Roman, though some argue that the Latin term came from the Arabic. Afar: Afar is the name that people of the Northeast use themselves. In the Amhara language they are called Adal; Arabs call them Danakil (Dankali); Oromo refer to them as Adali and neighboring Somali groups use the term Odali. In Tigrayan they are the Teltal. Afar is a more or less homogenous ethnic group. There are many Afar groups, but all consider themselves Afars. All groups speak the Afar language known as Afar-Af, except for the Irob group of the North, who speak Saho. Other groups are the Ankala, the Adhali and the Able (near Rarahita), the Uluhto, Ayrolasso, and Asabbakari, the Modhito (near Awsa), the Dammohoyta, and the Seka noblemen. Other sources: Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture 3-volume set (pages 12-13), by Carole Elizabeth Boyce Davies Outlines of lectures on ancient history (originally published in 1850), by Charles John Abraham ================== Publius Cornelius Scipio (at birth), was later called, Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus I, was a Roman general and and statesman of the Roman Republic. His father's name was, Publius Cornelius Scipio. One of his children's name was, Cornelia Scipionis Africana. He was best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle of the Second Punic War at Zama, a feat that earned him the agnomen 'Africanus,' the nickname "the Roman Hannibal." The term Africanus was indigenous to Africa and was passed down by the Berber people. Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus I, was also a Roman general and statesman. He was the son of Publius Cornelius Scipio and the older brother of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus I. The names Africanus and Asiaticus were given in honor of military victories. *The myth is that the term Africa, came from the Romans, however they are only responsible for the spread of the word usage which was applied to the entire land mass. (Pictured: Afar women, during a ceremony, near the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden in Africa.)
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02. 07. 18:27h
While Segun Oyeyiola was a student at Obagemi Awolowo University, he converted his gas-guzzling Volkswagen into a fossil-fuel free machine by installing a giant solar panel on top and a wind turbine under the hood. While many people are still in denial about the seriousness of climate change and its impending effects, the engineering senior is under no such delusions. He told FastCoExist in an email, “I wanted to reduce carbon dioxide emission[s] going to our atmosphere that lead to climate change or global warming which has become a new reality, with deleterious effect: seasonal cycles are disrupted, as are ecosystems; and agriculture, water needs and supply, and food production are all adversely affected.” His concern for the environment motivated Oyeyiola to donate so much of his time and energy to create this amazing piece of design. The idea is that it becomes “Nigeria’s future car.” At inception, the battery took 4-5 hours to charge, which was not ideal. The biggest challenges, according to Oyeyiola, was finding the best materials to use, and the people telling him he was wasting his time.
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02. 11. 06:36h
Benjamin “Pap” Singleton was an American activist and businessman best known for his role in establishing African-American settlements in Kansas. Held in slavery in Tennessee, Singleton escaped to freedom in 1846 and became a noted abolitionist, community leader and spokesman for African-American civil rights. He returned to Tennessee during the Union occupation in 1862, but soon concluded that Blacks would never achieve economic equality in the white-dominated South. After the end of Reconstruction, Singleton organized the movement of thousands of Black colonists, known as Exodusters, to found settlements in Kansas. A prominent early voice for Black nationalism, he became involved in promoting and coordinating Black-owned businesses in Kansas, and developed an interest in the Back-to-Africa movement.
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02. 13. 05:56h
There was a lot of excitement last year about Nosa’s short film, which premiered at the Matatu Film Festival in Oakland California in August 2014. It went on to screen at various film festivals around the World, from Brazil to Nigeria, and across Europe. The trailer has being watched over 160,000 times on YouTube. The film, which re-imagines deities known as Orisas from Yoruba cultural and religious heritage as modern day super heroes has gathered quite a remarkable interest from across the world and earned the young and visionary director a Rising Star nomination in the 2015 Screen Nation awards billed to be held on February 15th in London. More exciting is the news that there is more where this came from. Igodo films can confirm that the short film has been adapted into a feature script which is finally complete. Also there is a comic book adaptation in the works due to be published soon. We are excited and looking forward to working with a host of talents from across Brazil, Nigeria, the UK and USA. The film, still to be directed by Nosa Igbinedion is an action packed thriller set in modern day Brazil features a band of super heroes led by the storm goddess Oya, on a mission to save the earth from dark forces bent on its ruin. Principal photography will begin before the end of the year. Watch the short online here https://vimeo.com/118145648 (Brazilian subtitles) https://vimeo.com/118213327
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02. 13. 13:53h
At 3500 years old, this is the ultimate vintage guitar! It belonged to the Egyptian singer Har-Mose. He was buried with his tanbur close to the tomb of his employer, Sen-Mut, architect to Queen Hatshepsut, who was crowned in 1503 BCE. Sen-Mut (who, it is suspected, was far more than just chief minister and architect to the queen) built Hatshepsuts beautiful mortuary temple, which stands on the banks of the Nile to this day. Har-Moses instrument had three strings and a plectrum suspended from the neck by a cord. The soundbox was made of beautifully polished cedarwood and had a rawhide "soundboard". It can be seen today at the Archaeological Museum in Cairo. A tanbur is defined as "a long-necked stringed instrument with a small egg- or pear-shaped body, with an arched or round back, usually with a soundboard of wood or hide, and a long, straight neck". The tanbur probably developed from the bowl harp as the neck was straightened out to allow the string/s to be pressed down to create more notes. Tomb paintings and stone carvings in Egypt testify to the fact that harps and tanburs (together with flutes and percussion instruments) were being played in ensemble 3500 - 4000 years ago. Source: http://www.guyguitars.com/eng/handbook/BriefHistory.html
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02. 14. 15:34h
Born in 1979, Bedwei was diagnosed with cerebral palsy at the age of one -- cerebral palsy is an incurable neurological disorder that affects body movement and muscle coordination but does not interfere with the ability to learn. Bedwei has steadfastly refused to let her disability affect her career trajectory. Today, as the co-founder and chief technical officer of software company Logiciel, she is considered one of the most powerful women in financial technology on the continent -- in 2013, South Africa's CEO Magazine named Bedwei the most influential woman in business and government in Africa for the financial sector. Bedwei lived a nomadic childhood thanks to her father's role at the United Nations Development Programme. As a result, the family resided in Dominica, Grenada and the United Kingdom before finally settling in Ghana when Bedwei was nine years old. Bedwei was home schooled until the age of 12, and then continued her education at a government school where she was able to socialize with other children. Read More: http://edition.cnn.com/2015/02/13/africa/farida-bedwei-ghanaian-software-genius/
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02. 14. 22:14h
Noble Drew Ali, who was born Timothy Drew of North Carolina, was the founder of the Moorish Science Temple of America in Newark, N.J., in 1923. Soon after there were branches in Pittsburgh, Detroit, and other major industrial cities of the Northeast. Ali saw Black nationalist leader Marcus Garvey as the inspiration for his own efforts. He wanted to present to Black people a message of pride, self-determination, personal transformation and self-sufficiency. Ali also intended to provide African-Americans with a sense of identity in the West, and promote civic involvement. His movement inspired other leaders such as Fard Muhammad and Elijah Muhammad, leading to the creation of the Nation of Islam.
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02. 15. 00:41h
Yasuke is a Japanese name used, to refer to a black (African). Yasuke worked for the japanese warlord Oda Nobunaga as his bodyguard and then was granted the prestigious rank of Samurai. He was described in The “Lord Nobunaga Chronicle” (Shinchōkōki) has a description of Yasuke’s first meeting with Nobunaga. “On the 23rd of the 2nd month March 23, 1581, a black page (“kuro-bōzu”) came from the Christian countries. Yasuke looked about 26 24 or 25 by Western count or 27 years old; his entire body was black like that of an ox. The man was healthy and good-looking. Moreover, his strength was greater than that of 10 men.” After Matsudaira Ietada had met Yasuke in May 1582, Ietada journalized his looks. ” His name was Yasuke. Yasuke was tall, his height was 6 shaku 2 sun (6 ft. 2 in., or 188 cm.). He was black, and his skin was like charcoal.” If so, his tall stature would have been very imposing to the Japanese of the day. And he was affluent in several languages including japanese which bolsterd along with his size and strength to warlord Nobunaga. Yasuke became a permanent fixture in Nobunaga’s retinue, his size and strength acting as a deterrent to assassination not to mention a flavour of exoticism. Apparently Nobunaga became so fond of Yasuke that rumours abounded that the former slave was going to be made a Daimyo (a Japanese land-owning lord). Yasuke was given the honor of being made a member of the samurai class, a rare honor among foreigners. In the late 16th century a young African warrior from Mozambique assisted in the unification of Japan as a samurai to the historic warlord Oda Nobunaga (1534 – 1582).Yasuke was his Japanese name and he is mentioned in the 1581 letters of the Jesuits Luis Frois and Lorenço Mexia and in the 1582 Annual Report of the Jesuit Mission in Japan. The “Lord Nobunaga Chronicle” (Shinchōkōki) has a description of Yasuke’s first meeting with Nobunaga. The compiled chronicle consists of 16 volumes and is considered “mostly factual” and “reliable”. Chicago-based producer Floyd Webb (The Search for Count Dante, 2014) and Tokyo-based producer Deborah Ann DeSnoo (Japan: Memoirs of a Secret Empire, 2004) have formed a partnership to re-capture the lost histories of global cross-cultural interaction, 16th century Jesuit missionaries and the forging of a unified Japanese nation. For information email: yasuke@yasuke-san.com
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02. 15. 05:21h
Mark Dean, co-inventor of the personal computer, will join UT’s College of Engineering faculty this fall. Dean was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1996, was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2001, and received the Black Engineer of the Year Award in 1997 and 2000. He was named an IBM Fellow, IBM’s highest technical honor, in 1996, has fourteen IBM Invention Achievement Awards and six IBM Corporate Awards, received the US Department of Commerce’s Ronald H. Brown American Innovator Award in 1997, was named one of U.S. News & World Report‘s “Innovators of the 21st Century” in 2000, awarded the 2006 National Institute of Science Outstanding Scientist Award, and honored with the 2006 Distinguished Torch Award from the National Society of Black Engineers. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, an Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Fellow, and a National Society of Black Engineers Distinguished Engineer. Dean was also honored with the 2012 Distinguished Alumnus Award, UT’s highest honor, and the 2005 College of Engineering’s Nathan W. Dougherty Award, the college’s highest honor. He has been a longtime member of the college’s Board of Advisors.
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02. 15. 22:00h
Lt. Col Merryl Tengesdal, a Bronx native, has become the first African-American female to ever pilot the U-2 — an ultra-high altitude reconnaissance aircraft used for intelligence gathering and can fly up to altitudes of 70,000 feet. The aircraft is celebrating 60 years this year in flight. According to an article by the United States Air Force, Tengesdal, “As a child she imagined flying amongst the stars, thousands of miles above the earth’s surface, and today Lt. Col. Merryl Tengesdal is one of eight female pilots to ever fly the U-2 and the only black female pilot during the aircraft’s history.” The article also goes on to say that she has been recommended for promotion to colonel as well. Lt. Col Merryl Tengesdal is a true Bronx Hero and we are happy to celebrate her accomplishments. May her example be inspiration for all of our Bronx children that they can truly reach for the stars!
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02. 16. 01:02h
While so many would want to deny that Africans came to America before columbus. Increasing numbers of Olmec's are being discovered all America which have Africa features. Columbus' first journey in 1492 was a mission to capture gold but he was side tracked by the presence of the black Moors. Columbus sent word back to the Monarchs of Spain that there were (what he referred to in his logs as the people of Queen Sheba). Even through the middle ages, the term (as well as the Spanish, "moro," the German "mohr," the Dutch "moor" etc.) continued to be used in reference to Black Africans. In one of the oldest Dutch texts (1300s AD), a Moor was described specifically as "black." "mavro" which literally means "black, blackened or charred" and has long been used to describe black or very dark things such as, "Mavri Thalassa" which refers to the Black Sea or "mavri spilia" which means "black cave." Ancient Greeks used the term to describe the complexion of Africans and (even today, some Greeks use "mavro" to refer to Africans, although in a pejorative manner). One need not be a linguist to see the word's evolution from the Greek "mavro" to the Latin word, "mavrvs" (actually, "mavro" in the ablative, singular, masculine Latin form). The English transliteration is "Maurus" and the plural form is "Mauri," specifically used by ancient Romans in reference to Black Africans. Writers in both Greek and Latin specifically used the term as a racial identity. In the Epitome de Caesaribus (390s AD), we learn that Aemilianus was "a Moor by race." Procopius of Caesarea (500-565 AD), a Byzantine scholar who wrote in Greek, said in his History of the Wars, "beyond that there are men not black-skinned like the Moors..." Further proof of the true definition of the Latin term "Maurus" can be found in early English-Latin dictionaries: "Maurus" was synonymous with "Moor," "negro," and "Aethiops" in John Etick's A new English-Latin dictionary (1783) In A new Latin-English dictionary by William Young (1810), "Maurus" is a "black Moor" The Encyclopaedia Londinensis (1817) by John Wilkes lists "moor" as follows: "[maurus, Lat. μαυρο, Gr., black.] a negro; a blackamoor." John Olgilvie's The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language (1882), a Moor was a "black man or negro" Somehow by the 20th century, "Maurus" and "Moor" suddenly transformed into Berber and Arab - a grave contrast to historical precedent. Sources: http://pointingbird.tripod.com/lostfeatherintl/id65.htm http://www.taneter.org/moorsheads.html
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02. 16. 04:47h
In 1986 Ms. Stewart answered a magazine advertisement for a science fiction script that the Wachowski brothers were sophiagoing to make into a comic book. Years later, Ms. Stewart contends, her vision hit the movie screens on March 31, 1999 in the form of Matrix. In fact the Wachowski brothers used a verbatim quote from her book to introduce the film which was later removed after an FBI investigation into the criminal copyright infringement was initiated. There is a ton of information on the web about this case. There are several interesting radio interviews on Youtube where you can learn about Ms. Stewart’s early life as a prodigy, her leap into college at a young age and her travails in Hollywood. She was writing in the 1980s about technologies that had not even been invented. She’s already written Matrix 4 with “hologram clones, virtual reality, etc.” according to her, but she’s keeping it close to the vest, not surprising. She says that she writes in the universal language of mathematics. (Radio Interview on Youtube: “Sophia Stewart [Mother of the Matrix] on Veritas Radio | The Third Eye: Where It All Begins”) Stewart contends that there are a lot of people whose work has similarly been stolen, but because the media is corrupt, you don’t hear about it. In her case, no one is talking. The Wachowski brothers were famous for their reclusion especially after the release of Matrix and the subsequent controversy. My contention is that because they knew the work was stolen, they didn’t want to address it in the media. In fact, they made a deal with Warner that they would not have to do interviews. (In a bizarre twist, one of the Wachowski brothers (Larry) had a sex change and is now a woman named Lana, so the Wachowski brothers are no more.) I spoke with Ms. Stewart again in late July. One may read reports on the internet that Ms. Stewart won a multi-billion dollar lawsuit when, in fact, she received some funds but not the damages. “The Wachoskis Brothers lost on a default judgment in 2004,” she says. “They never answered the complaint ever.” On June 4, 2012, she won a judgment against her now deceased attorney, Jonathan Lubell (alias Jon Lubell) for failure to appear at a pre-trial conference in December 2011, and failure to appear to show cause in January 2012 causing her to lose hundreds of thousands of dollars in revenue and, more important, causing the dismissal of her $300 million 2003 California lawsuit. Her judgment is for $150 million. Sophia Stewart “Mother of the Matrix” In what continues to loom as one of the biggest criminal copyright infringement cases in the history of Hollywood, a lone African American woman is fighting the battle of her life against those who would ultimately take credit for blockbuster movie franchises, Terminator and Matrix. Sophia Stewart, a divorced mother of two, Tasha and Paris. and displaced New Yorker now residing in Las Vegas, is in an epochal legal battle with the famed Wachowski brothers (Andy and Larry) from Chicago, two carpenters/Marvel comic book writers who dropped out of college to pursue careers as Hollywood filmmakers. According to Ms. Stewart, an articulate if enigmatic writer turned litigant — the Wachowski brothers stole her script for a science fiction screenplay and turned it into the mega hit that we know today as the Matrix (1999) which racked up billions worldwide. Here’s how the story goes. Ms. Stewart, with her Bachelor’s degree in journalism from City University of New York in tow, moved to Los Angeles to pursue a writing career and to attend film school at the University of Southern California. Through her association with R&B singer Janet Jackson (go figure), she obtained entree into the entertainment business, initially working on small television projects and eventually landing at Columbia Pictures in the office of then vice president, Dick Berres. Soon after arriving in L.A., Ms. Stewart wrote a science fiction novel called The Third Eye. The book, she says, is a science fiction version of the ‘second coming’ which she was inspired to write after seeing Star Wars. “What I wrote was the evolution of consciousness, the second coming of Christ — man vs. the machine.” (An e-book version is available through her website Truthaboutmatrix.com for $24.99) When I first spoke with Sophia Stewart a few months ago in April 2012, she was most gracious with her time and forthcoming with the complex details of her lawsuits. The legal documents involved could make your head spin. She shared some of them with me. When Stewart saw the Matrix, she recognized her work right away and called the legal department at Warner Brothers on April 1, 1999. According to her, they knew exactly who she was and therefore, one would assume, they knew that her work had plagerized. “They offered me money right off the bat,” she says. She had also kept a copy of the original Wachowski ad which ultimately became one of many aces in the hole. “The ad is what brings it all together,” she says. “The ad is what says I told the truth.”
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02. 16. 05:25h
Jean-Louis was born in Haiti (then Saint-Domingue) in 1785, the son of a French fencing master. Later, he served as a soldier in Napoleon’s army. His most famous exploit as a duelist was a regimental “mass” duel that took place near Madrid, Spain, in 1814. French soldiers from the 32nd Regiment and Italian soldiers from the 1st Regiment quarreled. Within 40 minutes, Jean Louis’s fencing style would become a major influence on the French school of fencing, and he is credited with the saying—now famous among fencers—“A foil should be held as one holds a little bird; not so tightly as to crush it, but just enough to prevent it escaping from the hand.” He became sought out by members of the nobility for fencing instruction. Jean-Louis retired from the army in 1849, at age sixty-five, and began teaching fencing permanently at his school in Montpellier. Later he came to denounce dueling. He instructed his daughter in the art of fencing, and she would go on to become one of his most accomplished disciples. Read more: https://outofthiscentury.wordpress.com/2014/03/25/the-greatest-african-american-and-afro-american-martial-artists-in-history/
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02. 16. 22:00h
1. Did you know that he gave the African American community, in New York, over $50,000,000 and the US government made the mayor of New York give it back? 2. Did you know that he tried to give the Nation of Islam in the, United states, over a half a billion dollars ($500,000,000) and the US government made them give it back? 3. Did you know that all newlyweds in Libya receive $60,000 to buy their first apartment so to help start up the family. 4. Did you know that he was tiring to create a central bank for Africa where all the African Union nations would be able to get Loans from to rebuild the continent and the loans would have been at 0% interest and the banking system would have been based on Islamic Sharia Law free from Western banks slave debt. 5. Did you know that education and medical treatment were all free in Libya? 6. Did you know that Qaddafi carried out the world’s largest irrigation project. 7. Did you know that electricity was free. 8. Did you know that It was free to start a farming business and Qaddafi purchased all the farming equipment needed. 9.Did you know that gas was .14 cent a gallon. 10.Did you know that Qaddafi raised the level of education? Before Qaddafi only 25% of Libyans were literate. He bought that figure up to 87% under his rule with 25% earning university degrees. Greater than the US and nations of Europe. 11. Did you know that a mother who gives birth to a child receive U.S.$5,000. 12. Did you know If Libyans cannot find the education or medical facilities you need, the government funds them to go abroad, for it is not only paid for, but they also get a $2,300/month for accommodation and car allowance 13. Did you know that Libya had It’s own state bank free from the Zionist bankers of the West (FED, IMF and the Zionist International Bank of Settlements).
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02. 17. 14:07h
The Zanj Rebellion or the Negro Rebellion was the culmination of series of small revolts. It took place near the city of Basra, located in present-day southern Iraq, over a period of fifteen years (AD 869–883). The insurrection is believed to have involved enslaved Bantus (Zanj) that had originally been captured from the African Great Lakes region and areas further south in East Africa.It grew to involve over 500,000 slaves and free men who were imported from across the Muslim empire and claimed over "tens of thousands of lives in lower Iraq".The precise composition of the rebels is debated among historians, both as regards their identity and as to the proportion of slaves and free among them – available historical sources being open to various interpretations. The revolt was said to have been led by Ali bin Muhammad, who claimed to be a descendant of Caliph Ali ibn Abu Talib. Several historians, such as al-Tabari and al-Masudi, consider this revolt one of the "most vicious and brutal uprisings" of the many disturbances that plagued the Abbasid central government. The Zanj Revolt helped Ahmad ibn Tulun to create an independent state in Egypt. It is only after defeating the Zanj Revolt that the Abbasids were able to turn their attention to Egypt and end the Tulunid dynasty with great destruction.
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02. 21. 22:40h
Some believe that they are from a Semitic origin. According to the tradition, the ancestors of Fulani is Jacob son of Israel, son of Issac, son of Abraham When Jacob left Canaan and went to Egypt where Joseph was established. The Israelites prospered and grew in population while living in Egypt. Fulani people descended from them. After a long time a new Pharaoh who did not know about Joseph's fame in Egypt, came to power. He made the Israelites work hard at slave labor. The Pharaoh oppressed the people, including Fulanis who were rich in cattle. They emigrated from Egypt, some of them went back to Palestine and Syria under Moses guidance and the other crossed the Nile with their cattle and headed west. They took the name of fouth or foudh meaning those who left. A group from the latter moved along the edges of the Sahara to Touat-Air and then to West-Africa. Those who came to Masina (in present day Mali) spread to the neighboring regions where they were rejoined by Fulani groups from Morocco. It has established that about 700AD, Fulani groups from Morocco, moved southward, and invaded the regions of Tagout, Adrar, Mauritania, and Fuuta Tooro. The cradle of the Fulani group is situated in the Senegal River valley, where Fulanis established kingdoms. Until the beginning of the IX th Century..Around that period they continued their migration in the regions of Bundu, Bambouk, Diomboko, Kaarta, and Bagana Finally those who where concentrated in the Ferlo from the XI to the XIV century moved in various groups to the Fuuta Jalon, to the Volta river basin , to the Gurma, to the Haussa land, and to the Adamawa, Boghirme,Ouadai Other versions of the Fulani origin include: a- The mixing between the proto-Berber from North Africa, and the Bafur (the people who populated the Sahara) b- Issued from Asiatic pastoral tribes that invaded Africa, crossed the Sahara and dispersed through all the West-Africa Sahalian zone c- The Anthropologists declare that the study of many Fulbe cranian structure has indicated that they are intimately linked to the Ethiopians and that both types are very similar to the Egyptian crane structure. According to the eminent Anthropologist Mr. Verneau, the Fulbe origin has to closely link the Egypt. http://jamtan.com/jamtan/fulani.cfm?chap=2
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02. 22. 01:24h
The original civilizations of modern Southern Iran ( so called Ancient Persia) were established by a Black race (the missing link between the Black Afrakan and the Black Indian). The civilization of Elam was a major force of Black Power around 1900 bce when West Asia began to face a major immigration and invasion from a northern race of pale nomads from the Caspian Basin. As a group of dismantled nomadic tribes speaking various languages, it was the Elamite language that served as the linqua franca of the northern nomads. Thus, we see that the Elamite language is the origin of the so-called Indo-European languages. First, it is important to note that there is no such thing as Indo-European origin of anything, because this would suggest that they developed independent of Africans and archaeology has proven that all people have racial and linguistic origins from Africans. Secondly we must recognize that the concept of Indo-European languages is a mythical attempt to unite the languages of West Asia with Europe. However, they do not constitute one family. The European languages (with the exception of Greek) are distinctly their own. Likewise, the "Aryan" languages of West Asia (Hindu, Turkish, Farsi, Afghan, etc) are distinctly their own, owing to their origins the Elamite lingua franca.The Achaemenid Empire, which rose in 550 bce, was the last great Black Elamite state before the Greeks and the "Aryans" established dominance in Iran in 330 bce. It was the Black Elamite empire of the Achaemenid that defeated Kemet. This is an important point because they are militarily responsible for Kemet's downfall, not Greeks. When the Greeks won over Kemet, it had already been destroyed for over 200 years. The Greeks were no more than vultures on the scene who later pretended to be the lion. The Achaemenid Empire's control of Kemet proved empowering to Iran's culture. From Kemet they learned of the science of God and the result was Zoroastrianism. Both the Blackness of the Achaemenids and the Kemetic influence is explicitly evident in Acheamenid imperial art and religion. However, we must also remember that even the Achaemenids are not entirely responsible for Kemet's destruction. It was the Kemetic people themselves who are ultimately responsible for their own destruction. The beginning of the end of Kemet began in 655 bc when corrupt Kemetic princes of lower Kemet began fighting the Kushite leaders there; this allowed for the Assyrians to come in and defeat both. This was the deciding moment that led to Kemet's fall and prepared them for defeat when the Black Achaemenids arrived. The lesson here is that it is only a Black civilization that can destroy a Black civilization; it is after we have destroyed each other that Europoids and Asiatics will feast on us like vultures and then claim to have defeated us. It is for this reason that we must end Black on Black war forever. Source: Kushite-Kemetic Spiritual Science@facebook
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02. 22. 03:10h
In New York City, Malcolm X, an African American nationalist and religious leader, is assassinated by rival Black Muslims while addressing his Organization of Afro-American Unity at the Audubon Ballroom in Washington Heights. Born Malcolm Little in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1925, Malcolm was the son of James Earl Little, a Baptist preacher who advocated the black nationalist ideals of Marcus Garvey. Threats from the Ku Klux Klan forced the family to move to Lansing, Michigan, where his father continued to preach his controversial sermons despite continuing threats. In 1931, Malcolm's father was brutally murdered by the white supremacist Black Legion, and Michigan authorities refused to prosecute those responsible. In 1937, Malcolm was taken from his family by welfare caseworkers. By the time he reached high school age, he had dropped out of school and moved to Boston, where he became increasingly involved in criminal activities. In 1946, at the age of 21, Malcolm was sent to prison on a burglary conviction. It was there he encountered the teachings of Elijah Muhammad, the leader of the Nation of Islam, whose members are popularly known as Black Muslims. The Nation of Islam advocated black nationalism and racial separatism and condemned Americans of European descent as immoral "devils." Muhammad's teachings had a strong effect on Malcolm, who entered into an intense program of self-education and took the last name "X" to symbolize his stolen African identity. After six years, Malcolm was released from prison and became a loyal and effective minister of the Nation of Islam in Harlem, New York. In contrast with civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X advocated self-defense and the liberation of African Americans "by any means necessary." A fiery orator, Malcolm was admired by the African American community in New York and around the country. In the early 1960s, he began to develop a more outspoken philosophy than that of Elijah Muhammad, whom he felt did not sufficiently support the civil rights movement. In late 1963, Malcolm's suggestion that President John F. Kennedy's assassination was a matter of the "chickens coming home to roost" provided Elijah Muhammad, who believed that Malcolm had become too powerful, with a convenient opportunity to suspend him from the Nation of Islam. A few months later, Malcolm formally left the organization and made a Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, where he was profoundly affected by the lack of racial discord among orthodox Muslims. He returned to America as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz and in June 1964 founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity, which advocated black identity and held that racism, not the white race, was the greatest foe of the African American. Malcolm's new movement steadily gained followers, and his more moderate philosophy became increasingly influential in the civil rights movement, especially among the leaders of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee. On February 21, 1965, one week after his home was firebombed, Malcolm X was shot to death by Nation of Islam members while speaking at a rally of his organization in New York City.
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02. 22. 03:43h
This is African American History Ignored Moorish and Native American Asiatic Trading Inhabitants The Viceroyalty of New Spain was established in 1535 in the Kingdom of New Spain, it was the first New World viceroyalty and one of only two in the Spanish empire until the eighteenth-century Bourbon Reforms. Territorial extent of the overseas Spanish empire The Spanish empire comprised the territories in the north overseas 'Septentrion', from North America and the Caribbean, to the Philippines. At its greatest extent, the Spanish crown claimed on the mainland of the Americas, much of North America south of Canada, that is: all of present-day Mexico and Central America except Panama; most of the United States west of the Mississippi River, plus the Floridas. To the west of the continent, New Spain also included the Spanish East Indies (the Philippine Islands, the Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands, parts of Taiwan, and parts of the Moluccas) To the east of the continent, it included the Spanish West Indies (Cuba, Hispaniola (comprising the modern states of Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Puerto Rico, Jamaica, the Cayman Islands, Trinidad, and the Bay Islands). Until the eighteenth century, when Spain saw its claims in North America threatened by other European powers, much of what are called the Spanish borderlands, territory now part of the United States, was not occupied by many Spanish settlers and were considered more marginal to Spanish interests than the most densely populated and lucrative areas of central Mexico. On the mainland, the administrative units included Las Californias, that is, the Baja California peninsula, still part of Mexico and divided into Baja California Norte and Sur; Alta California (present-day Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah, western Colorado, and south Wyoming); Louisiana (including the western Mississippi river basin and the Missouri River basin); Nueva Extremadura (the present-day states of Coahuila and Texas), and Santa Fe de Nuevo México (parts of Texas and New Mexico).
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02. 25. 18:10h
Abdullah Burja, the eighteenth ruler of the Hausa city-state of Kano, was the architect of great prosperity in the northern Nigeria region. In 1438 AD he was crowned Sarki (i.e. King) of Kano. Within a few years, he became the most powerful sarkuna (i.e. king-but plural) within in the Hausa Confederation. His general led military campaigns for seven years in the regions to the south. The campaigns attempted to open the trade route to Gwanja on the edge of the forest belt. The Kano cavalry, typical of the time, were equipped with plumed iron helmets and chainmail. Their horses were protected with lifidi – a thick quilted armour made of cloth. Burja’s raids proved successful. Twenty one thousand prisoners were captured. The General dispatched the captives to twenty-one settlements in Kano City. From Gwanja, through this newly opened trade route, kola nuts and gold dust flowed into Kano. Meanwhile, serious diplomatic problems had emerged with the neighbouring state of Borno to the east (roughly modern Chad and Niger). The Kano Chronicle, the chief Hausa history, attempts to put a brave face on it but admits that after the conflict “many towns were given to Borno.” This indicates that Burja was defeated in whatever-it-was the authors of the Chronicle were trying to conceal. The city of Kano remained independent and surprisingly, direct trade was established with Borno despite the conflict. Moreover, the Sarki sent gifts to the ruler of Borno, acknowledging the Bono King’s supremacy as an Islamic leader. This started a tradition that continued late into the eighteenth century. Of the Hausa rulers, Abdullah Burja was the first to encourage the use of camels as beasts of burden. Previously, Kano businessmen and traders waited on camel caravans controlled by the Tuaregs to arrive from the north. Under Burja’s new policy, Kano merchants could transport their own goods across the desert. In the footsteps of these merchants followed the Hausa language and culture. Hausa became the biggest indigenous language spoken in Africa after Swahili. In reputation, Hausa merchants came to rival the legendary Wangaran merchants of Guinea, the economic powerhouse behind Mali. It is worth remembering that the BBC in the Millennium series described Mali as the richest empire in the fourteenth century world. In Kano Burja established the Kurmi Market. A veritable magnet, it attracted goods from all over the world. Source: http://www.whenweruled.com/?p=1
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02. 25. 18:43h
The northern Nigerian city of Gobir itself faced a powerful threat from the Fulanis. Austere and fanatical in their religion, they no longer tolerated the laxness and growing corruption of the Hausa rulers. In 1804 they revolted against these regimes declaring jihad on the rulers. William Winwood Reade, author of The Martyrdom of Man, gave an account of the relevant facts: “Othman [sic] Dan Fodio, the Black Prophet … went out of Mecca, his soul burning with zeal. He determined to reform the Sudan [i.e. that part of Africa] … Dan Fodio sent letters to the great kings of Timbuktu, Haoussa [sic], and Bornu [sic], commanding them to reform their own lives and those of their subjects, or he would chastise them in the name of God … Dan Fodio united the Fulah [i.e. Fulani] tribes into an army which he inspired with his own spirit. Thirsting for plunder and paradise, the Fulahs swept over the Sudan; they marched into battle with shouts of frenzied joy, singing hymns and waving their green flags on which texts of the Koran were embroidered in letters of gold.” Many ordinary Hausas joined the Fulani campaigns. They empathised with the Fulani attack on the luxury, injustice, and high taxation associated with the Hausa Sarkunas (i.e. kings – plural). Moreover, the government officials were not above confiscating livestock and other goods of ordinary people. Nor were they above capturing young women to serve in the harem. In 1812 the Shehu (meaning ‘teacher’), Uthman Dan Fodio triumphed over the Hausa kings. Ruling from Gobir, he changed the name of the city to Sokoto. The empire he built became the Sokoto Caliphate. Establishing a centralised government, he began a stability in the region that ultimately created an economic boom. Hausaland had seen nothing like it since the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Kano cotton, for example, clothed half of West Africa. Furthermore, the Shehu and his descendants were scholars of impressive intellects. Dr Davidson wrote that: “To Uthman, his brother Abdullah and his son Muhammad Bello are attributed some 258 books and essays on a variety of theoretical and practical subjects”. Source: http://www.whenweruled.com
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02. 25. 18:54h
Towards the end of the seventeenth century AD, both the combined states of Ndongo and Matamba, and also Kongo, fell victim to European predator activities where “executions, treachery, robbery, and violence became the order of the day.” Even under these trying circumstances, a great woman emerged. Kimpa Vita also called Dona Beatriz continued the resistance against the Portuguese slave traders. She was a Kongolese aristocrat born in 1682. By 1704 she began to get national recognition as a prophetess. Though a Christian, she led an interpretation of Christian doctrine that her opponents called the Antonian Heresy. This theology created a national religion in Kongo that owed little to the Church of Rome. Vita preached that (1) Kongo was the Holy Land described in the Bible; (2) The Kongolese capital, Mbanza Kongo, is the real site of Bethlehem; (3) Christ and all the other saints were Black; (4) Heaven was for Africans only; and (5) The White church was the anti-Christ. Thus, she called on Africans not to listen to White missionaries. Her political programme was to find the new king of Kongo who would lead the next golden age of Kongo civilisation. Unfortunately, it was not to be. She was eventually captured and executed by the Portuguese in 1706. Source: whenweruled.com
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02. 25. 19:25h
The kingdom of Kongo (now a part of modern Angola and Congo), was the wealthiest and most powerful state in the Atlantic region of Central Africa during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, began to dissolve in the seventeenth century under internal and external pressures. Portuguese military aggression emanating from the Angola colony to the south spurred the kingdom’s disintegration, notably at the battle of Mbwila in 1665 at which Portuguese troops killed the Kongo ruler Antonio I. The kingdom was plagued by devastating civil wars which fed the ravenous Atlantic slave trade. By the turn of the eighteenth century there was an immense political and cultural vacuum, the Kongo capital Mbanza Kongo (also known as São Salvador) had been abandoned and the kingdom had broken up into small territories ruled by warlords and members of the old Kongo nobility. Memories of Kongo’s past glory remained, however, and a series of popular movements developed out of the Kongo people’s desire to restore the kingdom to its former greatness. Source: http://kwekudee-tripdownmemorylane.blogspot.fr/2012/09/the-black-saint-and-prophetess-of-kongo.html
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02. 26. 15:54h
African conquistador in Amorica! Esteban,The Moroccan North African, made the first contact with the native peoples of what is now the American Southwest. Fraught with misunderstandings, that encounter led to Esteban’s untimely demise in 1539 and prefigured the violence that would characterize the Spanish conquest and subsequent colonization of the region. Esteban’s experience as a survivor of the failed Pánfilo de Narváez expedition to Florida in 1528 made him a natural choice to lead an exploration into the fabled lands of the north in what is now northern Mexico as well as Arizona and New Mexico. Fleeing from fierce attacks launched by the Apalachee, Esteban and his master, Captain Andrés de Dorantes, along with Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and thirteen others, sailed west through the Gulf of Mexico on quickly-constructed barges. They landed on a sandbar off Galveston Island (Texas) where Karankawa Indians enslaved the explorers, four of whom survived and managed to escape five years later, in 1534. In 1536, the survivors and their retinue of six hundred Indian escorts came across a Spanish slaving expedition, a chance meeting that ended their eight-year-long, 15,000-mile sojourn. The seemingly miraculous return of the intrepid survivors turned the attention of Spanish colonial administrators in Mexico City toward the mysterious north which had long been rumored to harbor a treasure to rival that of the Aztecs. When the three European survivors refused to lead an expedition to the north, Don Antonio de Mendoza, the Viceroy of New Spain, engaged the services of Esteban, purchasing him from Dorantes. Protocol demanded, however, that a slave could not lead an expedition. Hence, Mendoza persuaded a Franciscan friar, Marcos de Niza, to at least nominally head the venture. The group set out in 1539. By prior agreement, Esteban traveled several days ahead of Fray Marcos, leaving behind him a trail of crosses of varying size, corresponding with his findings. Esteban returned to his previous roles as healer, interpreter, go-between, and “son of the Sun.” Convinced of Esteban’s healing powers, some 300 natives joined his retinue and provided him with numerous presents. All went well until he reached Hawikuh, a Zuni pueblo located just east of the present Arizona-New Mexico border. He sent a message ahead, stating that “he was coming to establish peace and heal them.” Pueblo elders responded with a warning: he must not enter the village. To his detriment, Esteban ignored the warning. Word of his death reached Fray Marcos, who gazed at Hawikuh from afar, then headed back to Mexico City, claiming to have discovered the fabled golden city of Cibola. Though they took Esteban’s life, the Zunis memorialized him in a black ogre kachina named Chakwaina. To the Native people, Esteban was the harbinger of the European conquest to come. More important, however, he found a niche as a cultural broker, paving the way for intercultural communications among peoples of Europe, America, and Africa. As an enslaved North African man (native of Azamor, Morocco), living first in Spain, and then in Cuba and later in Mexico, Esteban spent his lifetime moving among various peoples and cultures. His own survival depended on his ability to function in multiple worlds. Sources: George P. Hammond and Agapito Rey, eds. Narratives of the Coronado Expedition , 1540-1542 (1940). Dedra S. McDonald, “Intimacy and Empire: Indian-African Interaction in Spanish Colonial New Mexico, 1500-1800” in James F. Brooks, ed., Confounding the Color Line: The Indian-Black Experience in North America (2002). Source: http://www.blackpast.org/gah/esteban-1539
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03. 03. 19:48h
The Gullah people are the descendants of the slaves who worked on the rice plantations in South Carolina and Georgia. They still live in rural communities in the coastal region and on the Sea islands of those two states, and they still retain many elements of African language and culture. Anyone interested in the Gullah must ask how they have managed to keep their special identity and so much more of their African cultural heritage than any other group of Black Americans. The answer is to be found in the warm, semitropical climate of coastal South Carolina and Georgia; in the system of rice agriculture adopted there in the 1700s; and in a disease environment imported unintentionally from Africa. These factors combined almost three hundred years ago to produce an atmosphere of geographical and social isolation among the Gullah which has lasted, to some extent, up until the present day. The climate of coastal South Carolina and Georgia was excellent for the cultivation of rice, but it proved equally suitable for the spread of tropical diseases. The African slaves brought malaria and yellow fever which thrived on the swampy coastal plain and especially around the flooded rice plantations. The slaves had some inherited resistance to these tropical diseases, but their masters were extremely vulnerable. The white planters moved their houses away from the rice fields and adopted the custom of leaving their farms altogether during the rainy summer and autumn months when fever ran rampant. The plantations were run on a day-to-day basis by a few white managers assisted, quite often, by certain talented and trusted slaves working as foreman or "drivers." The white population in the region stayed relatively low, but the importation of African slaves increased as the rice plantation system expanded and generated more and more profits. By 1708, there was a black majority in South Carolina, a unique situation among the North American Colonies. A European arriving in Charlestown in the 1730s remarked that "Carolina looks more like a negro country than a country settled by white people." The Gullah slaves in coastal South Carolina and Georgia lived in a very different situation from that of slaves in other North American colonies. The Gullahs had little contact with whites. They experienced a largely isolated community life on the rice plantations, and their isolation and numerical strength enabled them to preserve a great many African cultural traditions. By the early 1700s the Gullah slaves were already bringing together distinctive language, rituals, customs, music, crafts, and diet drawing on the cultures of the various African tribes they represented. The emergence of the Gullah was due, above all, to the isolation of black slaves in a disease environment hostile to whites and to their numerical predominance in the region—but another important factor was the continuing importation of slaves directly from Africa, and especially from the rice-growing areas along the West Coast. The South Carolina and Georgia planters realized that the specialized nature of their crop required a constant influx of slaves born in Africa, not in the West Indies or in the neighboring colonies. So, a black community, already isolated from whites, was being constantly renewed by forced immigration from Africa. The isolation of the Gullah community lasted throughout the period of slavery and continued even after the U.S. Civil War (1860-65) and the emancipation of the slaves. The Gullahs on the mainland continued to work on the rice plantations as wage laborers after gaining their freedom, but the rice economy of South Carolina and Georgia collapsed after about 1890 due to competition with rice farmers farther west in Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas. By 1900, the rice plantations were all abandoned, and the fields were returning to swampland. The Gullah people were left in an area of little commercial importance and of little interest to the outside world. On the Sea Islands, the rice and cotton plantations were abandoned after the Civil War, leaving the Gullahs there in one of the most geographically isolated regions in the United States. The first bridges were not built until the 1920s, and a decade later there were still adults on the islands who had never visited the U.S. mainland. But World War II and the great changes in American life since then have had a profound impact on the Gullah community. Many people have found economic opportunities outside the area, and return only occasionally for holidays and family gatherings. The Gullah people are no longer as isolated, and there is increasing influence through the media of American popular culture. But the Gullah continue to regard themselves as a distinct community, and they continue to cherish their unique heritage. Source: http://www.yale.edu/glc/gullah/04.htm
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03. 06. 09:18h
African architecture uses a wide range of materials. One finds structures in thatch, stick/wood, mud, mudbrick, rammed earth, and stone, with the preference for materials varying by region: North Africa for stone and rammed earth, Horn of Africa for drystone and mortar, West Africa for mud/adobe, Central Africa for thatch/wood and more perishable materials, Southeast and Southern Africa for stone and thatch/wood. Source: Mansa Wilbert Square Musa
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03. 06. 10:12h
Location Burkina Faso
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03. 11. 14:16h
The Shuwa Arabs are commonly referred to as the "Baggara." This name is derived from the Arabic word bagar, meaning "cow," and refers to the Arab tribes in West Africa who are cattle herders. They are spread from the Lake Chad region eastward to the Nile River in the countries of Sudan, Niger, Chad, Cameroon, Nigeria, and the Central African Republic. They live in a hot, semi-arid climate with zones ranging from sparse shrub lands to wooded grasslands. The Baggara tribes are of Arab descent and mainly speak the Shuwa dialect of the Arabic language. They entered western Sudan between the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and have gradually moved east and west from there. By the eighteenth century, they were concentrated primarily to the north and east of Lake Chad. Their tribes continued moving eastward until they became widely scattered across the horizontal plains of West Africa. They have intermarried with the tribes who lived close to them. This mixture of blood has given the Baggara darker skin and thicker lips than other Arabs. Read More (http://joshuaproject.net/people_groups/14926/NI#geography)
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03. 19. 15:14h
The Mossi Kingdoms, were a number of different powerful kingdoms in modern-day Burkina Faso which dominated the region of the upper Volta river for hundreds of years. The kingdoms were founded when warriors from the Dagomba area, in modern-day Ghana moved into the area and intermarried with local people. Centralization of the political and military powers of the kingdoms begin in the 1200s and led to conflicts between the Mossi kingdoms and many of the other powerful states in the region. In 1896, the French took over the kingdoms and created the French Upper Volta which largely used the Mossi administrative structure for many decades in governing the colony. The origins of the Mossi state are claimed by one prominent oral tradition to come from when a Dagomba princess left the city of Gambaga because of a dispute with her father. This event dates in different oral histories to be anytime between the 11th and the 15th centuries. According to the story, the princess Yennega escaped dressed as a man when she came to the house of an elephant hunter from the Boussansi tribe named Ryallé. He initially believed she was a man but one day she revealed that she was a woman and the two married. They had a son named Wedraogo or Ouédraogo who was given that name from the horse that Niennega escaped from Gambaga on. Wedraogo visited his grandfather in Dagomba at the age of fifteen and was given four horses, 50 cows, and a number of Dagomba horseman joined his forces. With these forces, Wedraogo conquered the Boussansi tribes, married a woman named Pouiriketa who gave him three sons, and built the city of Tenkodogo. The oldest was Diaba Lompo who founded the city of Fada N'gourma. The second son, Rawa, became the ruler of Zondoma Province. His third son, Zoungrana became the ruler in Tenkodogo after Wedraogo died. Zoungrana married Pouitenga, a woman sent from the chief of the Ninisi tribes, and the resulting intermarriage between the Dagomba, the Boussansi, and the Ninisi produced a new tribe called the Mossi. Zoungrana and Pouitenga had a son, Oubri, who further expanded the kingdom by conquering the Kibissi and some Gurunsi tribes. Oubri, who ruled from around 1050 until 1090 ACE, is often considered the founder of the Ouagadougou dynasty which ruled from the capital of Ouagadougou. Following Oubri, centralization and small-scale expansion of the kingdoms were the primary tasks. The Ouagadougou dynasty retained control in Ouagadougou, but the other kingdoms established by the sons of Wedraogo retained independence in Tenkodogo, Fada N'gourma, and Zondoma. Under the fifth ruler, Komdimie (circa 1170), two revolutions were started by members of the Ouagadougou dynasty with the establishment of the Kingdom of Yatenga to the north and the establishment of the Kingdom of Rizim. War between Komdimie and Yatenga lasted for may years with Yatenga eventually taking over the independent Mossi state of Zondoma. At the same time, Komdimie created a new level of authority for his sons as Dimas of separate provinces with some autonomy but recognizing the sovereignty of the Ouagadougou dynasty. This system of taking over territory and appointing sons as Dimas would last for many of the future rulers. Read More: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mossi_Kingdoms
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03. 19. 20:23h
In the darkness of mans waking moments on earth a mallet strikes an anvil and for the briefest of moments and while the universe holds its breath - the darkness is dispelled. The power of God ignites the plains of the Earth with brilliant civilisations. The first of such events manifested in the regions of modern day Egypt and was known as Ta-Seti, thus called 'The Land of the Bow' for its renown archers. Nestled in the ancient land of Nubia known as 'The Land of Gold' - this civilisation was established 300 years before the first dynasty of ancient Egypt was even a dream, as 12 noble dynasties reigned over its impressive countenance. In fact evidence suggests that it may have held the antecedence of Egypt in its womb signalling it as the first form of government and kingship known to mankind. The idea of a pharaoh (king) may have come down the Nile from Nubia to Egypt (and) that would make Nubian civilization the ancestor of Egypt... Dr. Bruce Williams, Archaeologist These wonderful discoveries were made by archaeologists labouring tirelessly with spades, chisels and shovels, who have revealed the illustrious days of Ta-Seti - stradling the regions of northern Sudan and southern Egypt. Also known as Ethiopia and Kush, its hidden secrets were laid bare by Professor Bruce William's in 1962. It took a colossal 20 years to gather the results of his teams extensive excavation. Recognised for its fabulous natural resources of gold, ebony, ivory and incense - Ta-Seti engaged contsantly with its neighbours in trade and commerce. Artefacts of profound importance discovered in the ancient ruins and royal tombs bear witness to craftsmanship of excelled skill and precision. Pottery and jewellery, found in Qustul, made to the highest order were encrusted with gold and precious stones: amethyst - carnelian. Astonishingly, writing was found in abundance adorning exquisite pottery establishing the universal literacy for all who lived in this forgotten but pivotal realm. This hieroglyphic textual evidence constitutes the oldest known form of writing yet discovered! Source: http://www.africankingdoms.com/
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03. 20. 20:52h
Numidia was an ancient Berber kingdom in modern-day Algeria and a smaller part of western Tunisia in North Africa. Numidia is first recorded in history as divided between two related tribal federations, the Maesulians in the east, and Masaesyli in the west. The Masaesylian king Massinissa allied with Rome during the Second Punic War, and, with Roman assistance, conquered the Maesulians, forming Numidia into one kingdom. The loss of their Maesulian allies deprived Carthage of its best source of cavalry, the Berber tribesmen making superb light horsemen, and contributed greatly to Carthage's great general Hannibal's loss at the Battle of Zama in 202 B.C., ending the war in Carthaginian defeat. Numidia profited from the alliance with Rome, annexing a number of Carthaginian cities in north Africa in the aftermath of the Second Punic War, and providing the instigation of the Third Punic War, ending in Carthage's utter destruction, by ongoing conquest of other Carthaginian towns and cities. As much as other regions in North Africa throughout, Numidia had highly mixed ethnic population. The direct descendants of the main Berber population of ancient Numidia are very likely the olive-complexioned Kabyle people of modern Libya. Major tribal powers such as the Massylii (Maesulians) and the Masaesyli, who ruled the region of Numidia in turns from the Second to First centuries BCE, would likely have resembled the modern Kabyle people. Black-skinned inhabitants of North Africa would have been represented in the proto-Haratin and proto-Tuareg people of North Africa, whom resided on both sides of the vast Sahara Desert. The ancient Saharan civilization of the Garamantes may have largely been of sub-Saharan origin. In towns and cities nearer to the Mediterranean coast, Phoenician cultural influence was strong. City-states such as Carthage and Utica were founded at the beginning of the First Millenium BCE by the Phoenicians, a western Semitic people whom originated from what is now Lebanon, southern Syria and northern Palestine. Carthage, in particular, was first settled by immigrants from the city of Tyre in Lebanon and others from the island of Cyprus. Read More: http://spartacus.wikia.com/wiki/Numidia
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04. 18. 15:29h
SHARE THE LOVE!!! Designed by Lonwabo Jobodwana Contact: Kuhlehere@gmail.com
Art
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04. 27. 15:32h
Candace of Meroë is a legendary queen of the Kingdom of Kush, with its capital in Meroë. The legend says that she defeated Alexander the Great when he tried to conquer territories south of Egypt. References to this warrior queen are among the earliest made to the Nubian Kentakes. The name "Candace" is actually a form of the title "Kentake" ("Queen"), and not the actual name of a person. According to legend, a person called "Candace of Meroë" was the queen of Nubia at the time of the conquests of Alexander the Great. Alexander allegedly encountered her when he invaded Nubia.In fact, Alexander never attacked Nubia, and never attempted to move further south than the oasis of Siwa in Egypt. The story is that when Alexander attempted to conquer her lands in 332 BC, she arranged her armies strategically to meet him and was present on a war elephant when he approached. Having assessed the strength of her armies, Alexander decided to withdraw from Nubia, heading to Egypt instead. Another story claims that Alexander and Candace had a romantic encounter. These accounts originate from "The Alexander Romance" by an unknown writer called Pseudo-Callisthenes, and the work is largely a fictionalized and grandiose account of Alexander's life.It is commonly quoted, but there seems to be no historical reference to this event from Alexander's time. The whole story of Alexander and Candace's encounter appears to be legendary Art Credit: https://tyrannoninja.wordpress.com/
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04. 29. 09:20h
The Book of Enoch : Do you know that The Book of Enoch outnumbered all other books of the Bible except the Psalms and Deuteronomy? And the Book of Enoch was considered Holy Scripture. But the book had entirely disappeared from the rest of the world but kept secretly in Ethiopia for 1700 years before the rest of the world rediscovered it. Thanks to our wise archivists who knew how to keep secrets for so long and release it when the time is right. You can now find this Ethiopian holy secret for free on the Internet. According to our holy father's it is revealed in these last days, for such a time as these, and as is written in the book for the last generation. For the generation to live before the great and terrible day of the Lord, where He visits the earth to judge the wicked, and remove all evil. Ethiopia has many more mysteries to share with the world. But this sharing is not done according to schedule, but only when the time is right. Source Facebook: Abebe H Woin
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04. 29. 10:57h
Citizens lining up to protect the police on W. North Ave. in Baltimore. Photo Credits Facebook: Van Applegate
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05. 01. 00:47h
Random Pictures
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05. 01. 11:03h
This Ugandan teen girl who played chess for food becomes global chess prodigy. She grew up in one of the poorest spots on earth. She couldn't read or write. As a child, she scrounged for food each day for herself, her mother, and her brother. Today her story grabbed the world’s attention, making children across her home country become even more interested in the game of chess also her story will be told as a protagonist in a future Disney movie.
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05. 03. 09:15h
Floyd Mayweather Jr. celebrates the unanimous decision victory in the "richest" boxing match in history during the welterweight unification championship bout on May 2, 2015 at MGM Grand Garden Arena in Las Vegas, Nevada
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05. 03. 12:03h
A Borana Oromo young woman, The Borona are also called the Boran, are a pastoralist ethnic group living in southern Ethiopia (Oromia) and northern Kenya.They are a moiety of the Oromo people,the other being the Barentu Oromo.
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05. 03. 12:12h
The Reunification Monument in the capital of Cameroon Yaoundé
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05. 13. 22:45h
match 16
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05. 19. 18:38h
King Tutankhamen was a boy king (the Living Image of Amen), also known as Nebkheperura (Lord of the Creations of Ra), who lived around 3,300 years ago.
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05. 22. 22:04h
Genetic researchers say they have found fresh evidence that Chinese people are descended from Africans. The findings also add new weight to theories that all human life began in Africa. Academics from the University of Texas and their colleagues in China studied 28 population groups in China and concluded that most - if not all - had their genetic origins in Africa. They looked at pieces of DNA known as microsatellites, which are short, repeating DNA segments that yield information about genetic variation among people. The researchers found that all Chinese have a great deal in common genetically, although there are some regional variations. The findings, published by the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, supports what has come to be known as the "Out of Africa theory". This theory contends that homo sapiens, the modern form of human life, is descended from a population of ancestors who migrated out of Africa about 100,000 years ago. The new data also supports the idea of an "African Eve" who is an ancestor of all living humans. The Eve hypothesis, first published in 1987, suggests that all human DNA can be traced back to a single female. This "Eve" would have lived in Africa about 200,000 years ago. The latest research challenges an alternative theory which holds that several different groups of humans evolved separately at the same time in several places around the world. Chinese mythology holds that the Chinese are descended from a single ancestor, the Yellow Emperor. More recent Chinese scholarship has argued that the Chinese evolved separately from other races.- Article from BBC titled "DNA traces Chinese back to Africa"
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05. 25. 21:24h
Call her a prodigy, a genius or a superstar, one thing’s for sure: Saheela Ibraheem is no ordinary teenager. Accepted into Harvard University’s Department of Neurobiology at age 15, Saheela is currently ranked 21st on The Best Schools’ list of the world’s smartest teenagers. Fluent in four languages (including Latin and Yoruba), the 19-year-old skipped several classes in secondary school because of her precociousness: she was always several steps ahead of her peers. Saheela’s brilliance extended beyond the classroom: she sang in the school choir, played the trombone, was a defender for the school soccer team, was on the swim team and headed the school’s investment club. Talk about an all-rounder. With a SAT score of 2,340, Saheela applied to fourteen universities in 2011, gaining admission into thirteen of them (Stanford, MIT and Cornell included). She decided on Harvard, choosing to study neurobiology with the intention of becoming a research scientist who studies the brain. Still, Saheela is modest about her achievements and believes that with effort and the right kind of support, anyone can achieve greatness. “I try my best in everything I do,” she said. “Anyone who’s motivated can work wonders.” Saheela recently introduced US President Barack Obama and his wife Michelle at a Black History Month event which held in the Green Room of the White House. Acknowledging her exceptional nature, Obama said, “We are so proud of your accomplishments and all that lies ahead of you, and you reflect our history. - See more at: http://gtcrea8.com/gist/meet-saheela-ibraheem-a-19-year-old-nigerian-harvard-student/#sthash.6HLLD1w2.dpuf
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05. 26. 12:13h
Dr. Thomas Mensah is one of the greatest minds of the 21st century. Dr. Thomas Mensah is an internationally recognized authority in Fiber Optics and Nanotechnology and also a renowned Scientist and Inventor with 7 USA and worldwide Patents in over a period of six years. He has at least 25 Issued and pending patents to his name in general. He is the first black person to receive such number of patents in a short number of years, and was elected to the rank of Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors in the USA. Dr. Thomas Mensah is one of the leaders in advanced materials that find applications in Aerospace, High Speed Rail, Windmill blade structures, and highly efficient cars. His current work in nano technology will revolutionize next generation batteries for electric vehicles and laptop computers. Dr. Mensah is one of the early proponents of High Speed Rail in America that integrates seamlessly with other modes of transportation to reduce green house effects. Dr. Mensah was named 100 engineers of the Modern Era, selected out of 1000 leading engineers by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. The most popular of the scientist’s inventions is in Fiber Optics and Nanotechnology which earned him 7 USA and worldwide patents over a period of six years, making him the first black man to attain such a feat. He has some 14 patents today.
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05. 30. 16:45h
Match 19
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05. 31. 13:24h
Ufot Ekong, a Nigerian Student has broken a 50 year record in Japan after graduating with a 1st class degree and best overall student from Tokai University in Tokyo Japan. This is the first time a Nigerian could achieve this feat since 1965. In addition to the award,he has developed a car to his name. He also won Japanese language award for foreigners and solved a mathematical equation that could not be solved 30-yrs ago in his first semester. Currently he is working with Nissan.
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05. 31. 19:33h
The discovery of twin pyramids and a sphinx in Zinder, Niger has caught the attention of Egyptologists and pyramid experts around the world. This is the first English report of that discovery. In February 2012, Egyptologist Souley Garba announced his discovery of a pyramid in the village of Dan Baki, 20 km west of the city of Zinder and 2 km north of the village of Tirmini. Garba estimates that the yet unopened pyramid might contain more than 40,000 gold objects. The Dan Baki pyramid has a twin nearby and appears to be part of a series of pyramids located in the region of Tanout. All the pyramids in the neighborhood appear to have remained sealed. Many other pyramids have been found across the Sahara. The discovery of a pyramid and a sphinx in Niger lends support to my theory of an African dominion from before the time of Noah (c. 2490-2415 B.C.). Kain, Seth and their wives were of the ruling houses of this ancient Proto-Saharan and Nilotic civilization, as were Lamech the Elder and his son-in-law Methuselah. Dr. Clyde Winters refers to this as the "Proto-Saharan Civilization." The Proto-Saharans venerated cattle and left behind engraving of bulls and calves with the solar disc between their horns. This image was associated with Hathor, the virgin who conceived by the overshadowing of the sun, the emblem of the Creator. Her son was Horus. She was the patroness of South Arabian metal workers as has been shown by discoveries at Timna. A temple dedicated to Hathor was discovered at the southwestern edge of Mt. Timnah by Professor Beno Rothenberg of Hebrew University. Abraham's Nilotic ancestors considered Horus the "Seed" of Ra because Hathor was said to conceive when she was overshadowed by the Sun. In the oldest known Messianic tradition the Son of God is born as a calf to Hathor who is portrayed as a sacred cow, and the birth took place in a stable with the Babe sleeping in a crib. Horus was portrayed in images as the golden calf appointed to rule by his father who was represented by the sun. His image is referenced in Exodus 32. The oldest known site of Horus worship is the shrine city of Nekhen in Sudan. It dates to the time of the pyramid discovered by Souley Garba, if Garba's dating is reliable. Garba claims that the pyramid of Dan Baki is 4500 years old. It is in an advanced state of deterioration, but was not open when it was discovered by Garba. Mr. Garba reports that this discovery is the "result of our activities we have been carrying out over 7 years and with a private institute of the United States of America." Garba explained that years of study of the hieroglyphic texts led him to the name of the village where he discovered the pyramid. He believes that the point of origin of humanity is in Niger. From there people spread into Chad, Nigeria, Sudan, Egypt, Yemen and Saudi Arabia. He has not attempted to explain the presence of more ancient monuments in Southern Africa, Turkey and China. Study of the ancient hieroglyphic texts reveals a close affinity between Ancient Egyptian and Hausa. The names Tanout and Dar-Gaza constantly recur in the hieroglyphic texts that Garba studied. Ta-nout means "belongs to the sky." Dar-Gaza means "crown of God" and refers to the sun. Gaza is a variant of Giza. Hausa is in the Afro-Asiatic language group. This group includes Akkadian, Ancient Egyptian, Arabic, Aramaic, Amharic, Babylonian, Chadic, Ethiopic, Hahm/Jaba, Hebrew, Phoenician, Sumerian and Ugartic. The diversity of this group is amazing! Chadic alone has 600 dialects. There is also a sphinx near the twin pyramids and Garba describes it has having a lion shape. The pyramid builders of Zinder reflect a very ancient kingdom-building tradition among Abraham's Nilo-Saharan ancestors. Here is Sanounou Ybrah's 3D reconstruction of the pyramid and sphinx showing the pyramid and sphinx in degradation state at Dan Baki in Zinder (Niger). Here's another interesting fact: Niger has grown 200 million trees over the past two decades - the only country in Africa to have added forest cover in the same period. - Alice C. Linsley
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05. 31. 20:20h
Random Picture
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06. 01. 16:41h
Situated an hour from Dakar, Senegal, there is an unusual lake that will capture your eyes because of its pink colour. Lake Retba (or Lac Ros as it is known by locals) is a lake that is high in salt content comparable to that of the Dead Sea of the Mediterranean . It's distinct pink colour is caused by the bacteria which is attracted by the lake's salt content. The bacteria produces a red pigment in order to absorb the sunlight which gives the lake its unique colour.
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06. 01. 17:22h
One of the oldest pictures of ancient Sudan architecture
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06. 02. 11:26h
Not very much is known of Lucien Alexis’ early childhood in New Orleans, but what is known are the achievements he would make in later years to come. Born on July 8, 1887 to Louis Victor and Alice Saucier Alexis, he was educated in the local schools where he excelled academically. Alexis was determined to attend Harvard University. Not having the finances to do so, he began working in 1907(at the age of twenty) as a railway mail clerk, saving for the education he so desperately desired. By the time he reached twenty-seven, he had set aside enough money for four years of college. He applied and was accepted at Harvard but was asked to attend (for one year) Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire, a prestigious preparatory high school. While at Exeter, he lived in the home of Mr. H.F. Quimby and soon developed a keen interest in foreign languages and the sciences. By now he had only enough money for three years upon entering Harvard, so he managed by graduating “cum laude” a year early (1917). It was there, at Harvard, that he earned the nickname: “The Negro Einstein.” That same year, Alexis entered Officers’ Training School in Des Moines, Iowa and was commissioned as a 1st lieutenant and assigned to the 367th Infantry on October 15, 1917. World War I was raging in Europe and Alexis sailed for service in France on June, 1918. Two months before departing, Alexis married Rita Holt in Gulfport, Mississippi and together they would have one son, Lucien Victor Alexis Jr. Upon returning to New Orleans, Alexis took up the profession of teaching. He was assigned to McCarthy Elementary in 1921 and appointed Assistant Principal in 1923 at Willow Elementary. But his greatest reward came in 1926 when he became principal of McDonogh#35, the only public high school opened for the education of colored students in the city of New Orleans. For the next nearly 30 years, he would leave an indelible mark on this institution which is still being echoed by many of his formal students up to the present day. “It was not unusual to spot our principal walking up and down the corridors of the Rampart Street School reading scientific works printed in German. Noted for his mastery of Latin, he often found time to instruct advanced classes in the subject.” (Class of 1936) Other graduates affectionately tell stories of his successful administration but also his dreadful “army”. Being a former military man, Lucien was said to be strict but fair as well as famous for his method of disciplining students. Students who violated his dress or discipline code were forced to join Alexis’ “army” and ordered to march up and down the second floor of the school building. Respect for Mr. Alexis soon extended beyond the school grounds and into the community. Since McDonogh#35 was located on South Rampart and Girod Streets, the students had to pass through a neighborhood of sleazy bars, houses of prostitution and various other vices. Often the girls were meddled by men on the way going and coming from school. Fortunately, once it was known that you were an “Alexis” girl, you were never meddled again. They respected Mr. Alexis and knew to show respect to his students. The “Negro Einstein” did not give up his interest and love for science once he became principal. For five years he engaged in serious scientific study and soon published a 40 page brochure outlining his principles of a new theory which he termed his “ethonic” theory. From 1929 to 1937, he published the following scientific articles: Fundamentals in Physics & in Chemistry, The Thermo-Electric Formula, The Riddle of the Magnetic Field, An Empirical Disclosure of the Fallacies of Relativity, A Counter-Deduction from Bent Alpha Tracks, Radiations-Their Loci of Travel and Their Loci of Origin, The Co-Origin of Gravity&Cosmic Rays, Simple Formulae for Measuring Atoms, Their Speed, and the Speed of Light. Upon retirement, the brilliant educator and published author opened Straight Business School on North Claiborne near Esplanade Avenue and Mrs. Alexis basically ran it. Lucien Alexis also was president of the Supreme Industrial Life Insurance Company, founder and executive director of the School of Post-Modern Science in New Orleans, and a charter member of Sigma Lambda Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity. Alexis also spent a great deal of time on his favorite hobbies at home. On the 25th Anniversary of his graduation from Harvard, he told the Harvard press of these hobbies: “Don’t interfere with my physics and chemistry, which I have raised from the ignoble position of a hobby into the dignified status of a science. Don’t interfere with my Italian which I have picked up since leaving you fellows. Don’t interfere with my German, my French, or my Spanish which I have kept plugging at. These are my near hobbies. You may interfere with my gardening and my frequent efforts at directing operettas, especially the Gilbert and Sullivan ones, for there you are in the field of real hobbies of mine.” Lucien Alexis passed away December 18, 1981. He is buried in the family’s tomb in St. Louis Cemetery No.3. Sources: Harvard Class of 1918: Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Report (1943), Harvard University Archives; Orleans Parish School Board Minutes 9/23/1921p.467 and 9/14/1923p.336 (University of New Orleans); 50th Class Reunion Booklet-McDonogh#35- graduating class of 1936 (University of New Orleans); Photo taken from The Roneagle 1931 Yearbook (personal copy); The Louisiana Weekly 18 Sept. 1926 p.1; The Times Picayune, 03 October 1992 (B1); Southern Discomfort- The Boston Globe, 12 Dec.,2004 p.4 Written by Lolita V. Cherrie for http://www.creolegen.org/
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06. 02. 13:21h
The most Googled products in every African country in one map Source: businessinsider.com
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06. 02. 14:05h
Centered in what is today Senegal and Mauritania, the Kingdom of Ghana dominated West Africa between about 750 and 1078 A.D. Famous to North Africans as the “Land of Gold,” Ghana was said to possess sophisticated methods of administration and taxation, large armies, and a monopoly over notoriously well-concealed gold mines. The king of the Soninke people who founded Ghana never fully embraced Islam, but good relations with Muslim traders were fostered. Ancient Ghana derived power and wealth from gold and the use of the camel increased the quantity of goods that were transported. One Arab writer, Al-Hamdani, describes Ghana as having the richest gold mines on Earth. Ghana was also a great military power. According to one narrative, the king had at his command 200,000 warriors and an additional 40,000 archers. Source: Atlantablackstar
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06. 07. 14:04h
"When you travel you realize south Africa is not as bad as you think. You must see corruption in the U.S -People get bribed for millions of dollars. The difference is, in South Africa corruption is still racialised"
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06. 10. 21:25h
Woods was such a prolific inventor, he is often called the black Thomas Edison. Woods holds more than 50 patents for such inventions as the egg incubator and a steam boiler furnace. But his most significant invention, the synchronous multiplex railway telegraph (patented in 1887), allowed railway stations to communicate with moving trains. Because dispatchers were better able to locate trains, rail accidents were significantly reduced. – The Ohio Historical Society
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06. 15. 11:46h
"Art presents itself with a certain kind of energy proceeding from our innermost being where logic nor intellect can be art. At the present time there are many people who believe themselves to be artists, just because they are able to paint on a piece of fabric. Art demands discipline and dedication. Art is the most beautiful way to express the talents that man has inherited; that is why it should not be taken as a means of satisfying the "ego", nor a "pose" in regard to society. Consequently Art should only have one purpose in mind: to create. ~ Ricardo Chavez-Mendez ~
Art
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06. 16. 12:39h
18 year old Nigerian [American Citizen], Kimberly Anyadike is a pilot who holds the record as the first African American teen to fly across the United States. She performed this feat at the neophyte age of 15 in 2009. Anyadike learned to fly at age 12 through the Compton-based Tomorrow’s Aeronautical Museum [TAM], which offers aviation lessons in an after-school program for disadvantaged youths. The Organisation also encourages youth involvement in aviation as an alternative to drugs, gang violence and other self-destructive activities. Source: http://www.konnectafrica.net
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06. 16. 23:33h
illustration of angus mcbride showing the Oba (king) of the Benin Empire receiving a group of portuguese ambassadors in the 16th century AD
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06. 17. 14:22h
An Old Manuscripts showing Islamic Moors in France Illumination from an unidentified 14th century manuscript in the National Library of Paris, France.
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06. 21. 16:56h
"When I started my music career, I was a maid. I used to clean houses. My mother was a proud janitor. My stepfather, who raised me like his very own, worked at the post office and my father was a trashman. They all wore uniforms and that’s why I stand here today, in my black and white, and I wear my uniform to honor them. This is a reminder that I have work to do. I have people to uplift. I have people to inspire. And today, I wear my uniform proudly as a Cover Girl. I want to be clear, young girls, I didn’t have to change who I was to become a Cover Girl. I didn’t have to become perfect because I’ve learned throughout my journey that perfection is the enemy of greatness. Embrace what makes you unique, even if it makes others uncomfortable." - Janelle Monáe
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06. 23. 18:14h
The first People to come to the philippines were Negritos. They were also called Atis or Aetas. They came across land bridges from mainland Asia about 25,000 years ago. At that time our country was connected to Asia by land bridges w/c later sank below the sea. The Negritos were very small people. They were less than 5 feet tall. They were called Negritos because they had black skin, short kinky hair, thick lips and black noses. They wore little clothing. They had no Government, no writing, and no permanent homes. They wandered in the forest and lived by hunting, fishing, and gathering wild fruits. They used the Bow & Arrow for hunting. Today, there are still Negritos in the hills of Zambales.
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06. 23. 19:05h
John Carlos was born in Harlem, New York in 1945. After graduating from Machine Trade and Medal High School, he was awarded a full track and field scholarship to East Texas State University (ETSU). He attended ETSU for one year, single-handedly winning the schools first and only track and field Lone Star Conference Championship. After ETSU, he matriculated to San José State University. During his stay at San José State University, he participated in the 1968 Mexico Olympics and won the bronze medal in the 200 meters. During the victory ceremony, John and Tommy Smith raised a black gloved fist in protest against racism and economic depression for all opposed peoples. This “Silent Protest” was voted as the sixth most memorable event of the century. Following the Mexico Olympics, John Carlos continued his education and athletic feats at San José State University where he single handily won the NCAA Track & Field National Championship in 1969. During his stay, he broke the world record in the hundred-yard dash. Concluding an illustrious career in track and field, John Carlos was drafted by the NFL. After a short career in the NFL, he entered the public sector, working for PUMA, the Olympics, and the City of Los Angeles. Presently, John Carlos is working as the Track & Field Coach, and an In-school Suspension Supervisor for Palm Springs High School in Palm Springs, California. Source: blackthen.com
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06. 26. 00:38h
She was originally born in London and grew up in a foster home with her sister in the small seaside town of Lowestoft in the south-east of England. Pursing her dream to be a doctor she studied at the University of York in the UK, graduating at the age of 21 as a qualified doctor. After loosing her sister to sickle cell anemia condition in Nigeria while staying with their relatives, she decided to leave her job and move back to Nigeria where she could try to make a difference to the lives of other patients and improving healthcare in the country as a whole. She started to study evacuation models and air ambulance services in other developing countries before launching her ambitious entrepreneurial venture, Flying Doctors Nigeria Limited, which today enables her to combine her deep love for medicine and Africa with her growing passion for flying. Ola is also a trainee helicopter pilot. Ultimately, her motivation for starting the business was to find an effective way of facilitating people who were critically ill, getting them to see the right doctor at the right facility within the right time frame for that particular illness. Today, her business, Flying Doctors Nigeria Limited is the first air ambulance service in West Africa to provide urgent helicopter, airplane ambulance and evacuation services for critically injured people. Source: lionessesofafrica.com
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07. 05. 08:46h
Many Web Developers leave once developed products for ever. In this case we are very distinct from them. We believe not only in the Quality of the products that are released, but also take the responsibility to keep updating them
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07. 15. 00:47h
A tobacco farmer, and amateur astronomer, Benjamin Banneker was an inspiration for his mathematical achievements. He is frequently described as the first African American man of science. Early Life. Banneker was born free in Baltimore County, Maryland, on 9 November 1731. He was the son of a freed slave from Guinea named Robert and of Mary Banneky, daughter of a formerly indentured English servant named Molly Welsh and her husband, Bannka, a slave whom she freed and who claimed to be the son of a Gold Coast tribal chief. Banneker’s early years were spent with his family, including three sisters, growing tobacco on his parents’ 100-acre farm near the banks of the Patapsco River. In his early years he had been trained to read and write by his grandmother by means of a Bible she had purchased from England, but his only formal schooling was attendance for a week or two in a nearby Quaker one-room schoolhouse. Benjamin became a voracious reader, borrowing books from wherever he could, and developed considerable skill in mathematics. He enjoyed devising mathematical puzzles and solving those brought to him by others. At about the age of twenty-one he constructed a striking wall clock, without ever having seen one. It is said that it was based on his recollections of the mechanism of a pocket watch. Apparently, he visualized it as a mathematical puzzle, relating the numerous toothed wheels and gears, carving each carefully from seasoned hardwood with a pocket knife. For a bell, he utilized either part of a glass bottle or metal container. The timepiece appears to have been the first clock in the region and brought those who had heard about it to his cabin to observe it and listen to it strike. The clock continued to function successfully for more than fifty years, until his death. Inheriting the family farm at his father’s death, Banneker lived with his mother until her demise. Then living alone, he continued to grow and sell tobacco until about the age of fifty-nine, when rheumatism forced him to retire. His farm made him virtually self-sufficient, with a productive vegetable garden, thriving fruit orchards, and several hives of bees that he maintained. Banneker and his family had been among the first clients of the newly established Ellicott Store, in nearby Ellicott’s Lower Mills, and during his leisure he continued to visit it frequently, purchasing small items he required, perusing the wealth of imported merchandise, occasionally purchasing an inexpensive book for his own small library. Most of all he enjoyed the opportunity to read newspapers from other cities that the store sold and that provided him with a link to the outer world. Now, with the freedom of retirement from work, Banneker turned with new vigor to his astronomical studies, often whiling away the hours until dawn scanning the night skies with his telescope and recording notations for an ephemeris for an almanac he was compiling for the following year. Work in Observational Astronomy. It was just at this time that fate sought him out for an important role to play in the nation’s history. The surveyor Andrew Ellicott had recently been appointed by President George Washington to produce a survey of selected lands on which to establish a national capital. Ellicott urgently required an assistant with some knowledge of astronomy to work in the field observation tent during the night hours. He traveled to Ellicott’s Lower Mills hoping to hire his cousin George Ellicott, Banneker’s neighbor, who was an amateur astronomer. However, his cousin, being unable to leave his own work, instead recommended Banneker, whom he felt had become sufficiently informed on the subject to fulfill the position. Banneker was hired and, overwhelmed by the opportunity, he traveled together with Andrew Ellicott to the site that was to become the national capital, arriving early in the new year of 1791. Banneker worked in the observatory tent for more than four months, from the beginning of February until the end of April 1791. It was grueling work, for he was forced to spend the long hours of the night lying on his back in order to use an instrument called a zenith sector. His assignment was to observe through the instrument’s telescope as stars transited over the zenith, noting the exact moment of each star’s transit and recording it for Ellicott’s use when he arrived the next morning. It was extremely tiring work for a man of Banneker’s advanced years, but despite the discomfort, he derived considerable pleasure and pride from the knowledge that he was contributing to such an important project. Also, after taking a nap during the early daylight hours, Banneker had the privilege of using Ellicott’s astronomical textbooks, which were maintained in the observatory tent. This enabled him to complete the ephemeris he was compiling for an almanac for the following year, 1792. For his participation on the survey, including travel, Banneker was paid a total of $60. Correspondence with Jefferson. Soon after returning home, Banneker sent a handwritten copy of his completed ephemeris to Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson because, as he wrote, Jefferson was considered to be “measurably friendly and well disposed towards us,” referring to the African American race, “who have long laboured under the abuse and censure of the world. … And have long been looked upon with an eye of contempt, and … long have been considered rather as brutish than human, and scarcely able of mental endowments (1792).” Submitting his calculations as evidence to the contrary, Banneker urged Jefferson to work toward bringing an end to slavery. Jefferson answered promptly: No body wishes more than I do to see such proofs as you exhibit, that nature has given our black brethren, talents equal to those of other colors of men, and that the appearance of a want of them is owed merely to the degraded condition of their existence, both in Africa & in America. … No body wishes more ardently to see a good system commenced for raising the condition of both their body & mind to what it ought to be, as fast as the imbecility of their present existence, and other circumstances which cannot be neglected, will admit. (Payne, 1862, pp. 168–171) Jefferson was so impressed with Banneker’s calculations that he sent a copy to the Marquis de Condorcet, secretary of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris, with an enthusiastic cover letter. No reply was forthcoming from Condorcet, however, because at just the time of the arrival of Jefferson’s letter, the French diplomat had been forced to go into hiding for opposing the monarchy and for having supported a republican form of government. During the following year, the two letters, the one from Banneker to Jefferson and the statesman’s reply, were published in the United States in a widely distributed pamphlet and in at least one periodical. Publication of the Almanac. James McHenry, a senator from Maryland, had been so impressed with Banneker’s almanac manuscript that he wrote an endorsement for it that was published together with the almanac by the Baltimore printer Goddard & Angell. The almanac bore the title Benjamin Banneker’s Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia Almanack and Ephemeris for the Year of Our Lord 1792. In addition to its sales in Baltimore, the almanac was made available also by printers in Alexandria, Virginia, and in Philadelphia. It proved an immediate success, and Banneker’s lifestyle soon changed somewhat, as he became acknowledged by neighbors and occasionally by others visiting the region. During the next five years, Banneker continued to calculate ephemerides, which he sold and which were published in almanacs bearing his name in the title. Promoted by the abolitionist societies of both Pennsylvania and Maryland, Banneker’s almanacs were published by several printers and sold widely in the United States and also in England. Twenty-eight separate editions of his almanacs are known to have been published. Generally, in the production of an almanac, the astronomer provided only the ephemeris, and the remaining content was selected and furnished by the printer, who often selected random prose and poetry taken from the published press or journals. Frequently included were useful tables of weights and measures, coinages, interest rates and scales of depreciation, measurements of roads, and distances of cities from the place of publication, a calendar of meetings of courts of law holding sessions where the almanacs would be sold, and so forth. The remainder of the pages of these inexpensive and poorly printed pamphlets generally were filled with moral elevating scriptural quotations, proverbs, allegorical stories, and puritanical essays. By the beginning of the eighteenth century, however, the almanac’s content changed distinctly in tone from its earlier religious bias to one of more practical considerations, with emphasis on education and literary and historical content. As a consequence, in time the almanac became more entertaining, with homely wisdom cast in contemporary language. By the end of the eighteenth century, the publication had become the most common printed item in the American republic, printed in every state, each vying with others in developing a new marketable item. In the period that Banneker was undertaking the preparation of an ephemeris, the century was drawing to a close and once more the almanac content was undergoing a change, with new emphasis on local causes and national events. In a period when clocks and watches were luxuries and common timepieces consisted primarily of time glasses and sundials, information about the times of sunrise, noon, and sunset were of considerable importance to the prospective purchaser, as well as the phases of the moon, eclipses, and conjunction. Among the most desirable and useful features of Banneker’s almanacs proved to be a tide table for the Chesapeake Bay region, which made his almanacs particularly desirable for river pilots, fishermen, and others living near and making their living on the water. It listed times for high water or high tide at Cape Charles, Point Lookout, Annapolis, and Baltimore. Why Banneker’s competitors ignored this feature is hard to understand, because it was simple enough to calculate the high tide at Annapolis, for instance, which was two hours later than at Point Lookout, while at Baltimore and Head-of-the-Bay the high tide was five hours later than at Point Lookout. The tide table was simplified considerably in Banneker’s almanacs for the years 1795 and 1796, which provided data for determining tides in ports as distant north as Halifax and Boston. This feature was titled “Rule to find the Time of High Water in the following Places” and consisted simply of an additive for each of the places listed, to be combined with the day of the Moon’s age. It was Banneker himself and not his printer who compiled the tide tables for his almanacs. It was a simple matter to acquire the data, and no mathematical achievement was involved. The changing of the tides had been associated with the motion of the Moon for centuries. Once the time of the highest or spring tide was known at a particular point at the age of the full or new moon, it was a simple matter to derive a table for each day of the month at the same place. Banneker applied the standard daily retardation of forty-eight minutes, or four-fifths of an hour. This determination of the highest tide waters or spring tides on the days of the full or new moon was known as “the establishment of the port” and generally was marked on the charts for the port in question. From data in his published almanacs, it is evident that Banneker made his observations from a point of latitude 39°30’ north and a longitude of 4 hours, 59 minutes west. In addition to recording in his manuscript astronomical journal the ephemerides for each of the years for which he calculated them, Banneker also included miscellaneous exercises in mathematics and astronomy. In the pages of his manuscript astronomical journal as well as in his commonplace book, Banneker occasionally recorded miscellaneous items about unusual atmospheric phenomena he had observed. Typical of these random notes was an entry on the very first page of the journal, under the date of 23 December 1790. He noted, “About 3 o’clock A.M. I heard a Sound and felt the Shock like heavy thunder I went out but could not observe any Cloud above the Horizon. I therefore Conclude it must be a great Earth Quake in some part of the Globe.” Another item, recorded on 4 May 1792, described how “In a Squall from the N.W. I observed the Lower regions of the Clouds to move Swiftly before the wind, and the upper region Slowly against it.” Even in his later years the weather continued to preoccupy him. On 2 February 1803, he noted, in the morning part of the day, there arose a very dark Cloud, followed by Snow and haile a flash of lightning and loud thunder crack, and then the Storm abated untill after noon, when another cloud arose the Same point, viz, Northwest with a beautiful Shower of Snow but what beautyfyed the Snow was the brightness of the Sun, which was near Setting at the time. A comparison of the contents of Banneker’s published ephemerides made with those calculated and published by his contemporaries Ellicott, William Waring, and Mary Katherine Goddard, has revealed that Banneker’s calculations consistently reflected an overall high degree of comparative accuracy. An error analysis of the astronomical data in Banneker’s almanacs revealed that his data compared very favorably with that published by his contemporaries. There was no significant difference between Banneker’s star data and that published by the two contemporary almanac makers. Although Banneker’s planetary data may have appeared to be somewhat less accurate than that of Ellicott or Goddard, it was still quite usable by the ordinary purchaser of the almanac. Considering that the length and complexity of the calculations involved in determining the rising and setting of certain stars and planets, and realizing that this was only a small segment of the mathematics required for one year’s almanac, one can have only the greatest respect for this self-taught man of science. Although Banneker continued to calculate ephemerides every year through the year 1802, those after 1797 remained unpublished, but were carefully recorded in his manuscript journal and commonplace book, which survive as unique records of an eighteenth-century almanac maker. Character. Banneker espoused no particular religion, but as an early biographer noted, “His life was one of constant worship in the great temples of nature and science.” (Allen, 1921) As places of worship in his vicinity grew in number, Banneker visited each of them, but gave preference to the meetings of the Society of Friends, where “he presented a most dignified aspect as he leaned in quiet contemplation on a long staff, which he always carried after passing his seventieth year. And he worshipped, leaning on the top of his staff.” (Allen, 1921) A description of Banneker was provided by Martha Tyson, daughter of George Ellicott, who had seen him when she was a young woman. “The countenance of Banneker,” she wrote, had a most benign and thoughtful expression. A fine head of white hair surmounted his unusually broad and ample forehead, whilst the lower part of his face was slender and sloping towards the chin. His figure was perfectly erect, showing no inclination to stoop as he advanced in years. His rainment was always scrupulously neat; that for summer wear, being of unbleached linen, was beautifully washed and ironed by his sisters. … In cold weather he dressed in light colored cloth, a fine drab broadcloth constituting his attire when he designed appearing in his best style. No known portrait of Banneker exists. Lacking such, an image frequently used is a woodcut portrait bust of a young black man, imaginary and not based on life, wearing the typical Quaker garb of the period. Purported to be of Banneker, this image illustrated the cover of a 1797 edition of one of his almanacs. The most accurate representation known may be found on a modern mural painting by the late William H. Smith of the survey of the federal territory. It hangs in the Maryland House on the John F. Kennedy Highway in Aberdeen, Maryland. In 1980 the U.S. Postal Service issued a commemorative stamp honoring Banneker based on imagined features. On 9 October 1806, during a nap following his usual morning walk, Banneker quietly died in his sleep, just one month short of his seventy-fifth birthday. In accordance with instructions he had left, immediately following his death all the items that had been borrowed from his neighbor George Ellicott, including the worktable, instruments, and books, had been returned to him by Banneker’s nephew. Included also was Banneker’s astronomical journal. Banneker was buried two days later, on Tuesday, 11 October, in the family burial ground within sight of his house, a few yards away. During the services, as his body was being lowered into his grave, the mourners were startled as they looked up to see his house, a wooden building, suddenly burst into flame. Before help could be summoned, the entire structure burned to the ground. All its contents were totally destroyed, including Banneker’s clothing and other personal possessions, a few bits of furniture, a sparse collection of books and printed copies of his almanacs, as well as the fabled well-worn striking clock. The only item known to have escaped destruction was his quarto Bible, which had been removed from his house after his death and before the funeral, probably by one of his sisters. The cause of the conflagration was never determined. Banneker’s death did not pass totally unnoticed. An obituary announcement appeared in the Federal Gazette on 28 October 1806, almost three weeks after his death. It provided a description of Banneker’s way of life and concluded, “Mr. Banneker is a prominent instance to prove that a descendant of Africa is susceptible of as great mental improvement and deep knowledge into the mysteries of nature as that of any other nation.”
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07. 26. 12:39h
"The state of California was named after the mythical Black Queen Califia. According to the story, California was an island where only Black women lived. The women were the most powerful women in the world. When Cortez arrived in California, searching for this mythical queen, her influence on him was so severe, he paid tribute to this powerful Black Woman Queen Califia by naming the state after her. California literally means, “'the land where Black women live.'" Source: FrenchCreoles.com
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08. 03. 20:45h
A wise person will always find a way. ~ Tanzanian proverb
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08. 31. 10:35h
Lewis Howard Latimer (September 4, 1848 - December 11) 1928.was an inventor and draftsman best known for his contributions to the patenting of the light bulb and the telephone. Some believe he is TRUE creator of the light bulb & several other stolen inventions we all take for granted. Patents: U.S. Patent 147,363 "Water closets for railway cars," February 10, 1874. U.S. Patent 247,097 "Electric lamp" (with Nichols, Joseph V.), September 13, 1881 U.S. Patent 252,386 "Process of Manufacturing Carbons," January 17, 1882 U.S. Patent 255,212 "Globe supporter for electric lamps" (with Tregoning, John), March 21, 1882 U.S. Patent 334,078 "Apparatus for cooling and disinfecting," January 12, 1886 U.S. Patent 557,076 "Locking rack for hats, coats, and umbrellas," March 24, 1896 U.S. Patent 968,787 "Lamp fixture" (with Brown, Charles W.), August 30, 1910 Source Facebook: Nakhti KamenWati Madu & biography.com
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09. 24. 10:37h
From Durban South Africa, Bheki (Henry) Cele (1949 - 2007) is the name of the brilliant actor who gave us that magnificent and riveting portrayal of the great Zulu Warrior King Shaka Zulu. He mostly spent the rest of his life out of the glare of the spotlight, no money, but teaching under privileged youth to play football until he died. Sadly, he died of a lung infection. He will always be remembered as our Shaka Zulu the King. Source Facebook: Nubian Roots
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12. 01. 06:12h
"A little rain each day will fill the river to overflowing" - Liberian Proverb
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12. 03. 12:30h
Some Africans in diaspora are really making the country proud with outstanding performances in their different areas of focus. Keep up the good work. Pictured is Hadiza Saddik Mahuta who was awarded the degree of 'Masters of Law' after graduating with distinction from the University of West England Bristol. Not only that, she also had her name placed on the school's 'Star of Fame' datatbase. Congratulations to her...
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02. 16. 13:42h
Was kendrick Lemar also paying tribute to the King of Pop?
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02. 22. 20:24h
A man who uses force is afraid of reasoning ~ Kenyan proverb